Bionatura
Bionatura
Latin American Journal of Biotechnology and Life Sciences
Latin American Journal of Biotechnology and Life Sciences
Go to content
2022.07.04.6
Files > Volume 7 > Vol 7 No 4 2022


Role of ascorbic acid and appetite stimulants on a few blood serum biochemical characteristics in pregnant Iraqi ewes under heat stress
F. T. Al-Rawi1, Y. T. Abdul-Rahaman1 , Abdullah I.Noaman2 , Th. T. Mohammed3,*, S. M Abdulateef3, Nadia Jebril4 and KI. Mahmud5
1-College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Fallujah/ Iraq, [email protected]
2 Department of Animals Production, Collage Of Agriculture, University Of Tikrit; [email protected]
3 Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq
4 Department of Biology, College of Sciences for Women, University of Babylon, Iraq.
5College of Agriculture Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University, Iraq
*Corresponding Author: [email protected]
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.04.6
ABSTRACT

 
This study evaluated the effect of VêO® premium (2 or 4)g and ascorbic acid on pregnant ewes on some minerals. Twenty Iraqi ewes are aged 2-4 years in the Fallujah, Al-Anbar Government regions from August 5th, 2019, to February 9th, 2020. The ewes were divided randomly into four groups. It was fed naturally and on one diet, and the (G1) was given VêO® premium 4 g, (G2) was given VêO® premium 2 g, (G3) was given ascorbic acid 40 mg, and (G4) was treated as the control group. Blood samples were taken monthly via the external jugular vein before and during pregnancy. The serum samples were liquated in tubes and immediately stored at -20 °C until assay for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium. The results showed the effect of VêO® Premium and ascorbic acid on calcium concentration in G2 before pregnancy. Phosphorous concentration was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the (G1, G2, and G4) before pregnancy, but no significant difference in potassium between the groups before and during pregnancy. Sodium concentration was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the (G1, G2, G3, and G4) before pregnancy. Magnesium concentration was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the (G2) during pregnancy and (G3) before pregnancy. It was concluded from the current study that the addition of VêO® premium (2 or 4)g and ascorbic acid (40 mg) to the feed increased some minerals before and during pregnancy in Iraqi ewes.
 
Keywords: VêO® premium, ascorbic acid, minerals, pregnancy, Iraqi ewes

 
 
INTRODUCTION

 
Reproduction is closely related to nutrition through the level of energy and protein, especially at the beginning of puberty. There are many nutrients and minerals whose deficiency leads to reduced reproduction1,2,3,1,7.
 
Several studies have shown the benefit of adding nutritional supplements to animal diets on fertility and that their deficiency leads to a reduction in enzyme activity affecting energy; protein metabolism; synthesis of hormones; integrity of rapidly dividing cells within the reproductive system; the activity of rumen microflora, and the role of micronutrients as depression antioxidants16
 
Minerals are found in components and metabolites of the follicular fluid that exhibit physiologic functions and chemical constituents of semen from farm animals7,8. These minerals also may have specific roles and requirements in reproductive tissues. The conditions of a mineral in reproductive tissue and cell type may change with the physiological state of the tissue during reproductive cycling and pregnancy10.
 
Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the effect of VêO® premium and ascorbic acid on Iraqi ewes in pregnancy on some minerals.

 
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS

 
The experimental work was carried out in Fallujah, Al-Anbar Government regions from August 5th, 2019, to February 9th, 2020. 20 Iraqi ewes aged 2-4 years were divided randomly into four groups. It was fed naturally and on one diet, and the (G1) was given VêO® premium 4 g, (G2) was given VêO® premium 2 g, (G3) was given ascorbic acid 40 mg, and the (G4) was treated as a control group. VêO® premium supplementation components: Orange sweet, calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, Vit. E and wheat flour (Produced by the Phodé, French). The sponges were withdrawn 14 days after they were placed, and the male was inserted for five days. Blood samples were taken monthly via the external jugular vein before and during pregnancy. The blood sample was centrifuged at (3000 RPM for 10 minutes), and the serum samples obtained were liquated in tubes and immediately stored at -20 °C until assay. Using commercially available kits, we used the serum samples to determine the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium. A spectrophotometric analyzer was used for the mineral analytes (APLI. The kit was provided by SPINREACT, S.A./S.A.U. Ctra. Santa Coloma, SPAIN).
 
Analysis of variance (GLM; SPSS program/ version 25) was used to determine the effects of groups (control, VêO® premium and ascorbic acid) and mineral concentration. Comparison of means was carried out by the Least Significant Differences test (LSD) according to23. Differences were considered to be significant at (p<0.05).

 
 
RESULTS
 

Calcium and Phosphorous
 
The effect of VêO® premium and ascorbic acid on Iraqi ewes in pregnancy on calcium and Phosphorous are presented in Table (1). G2 before pregnancy was significant (P≤0.05) in calcium concentration than during pregnancy, and no significant difference in the other groups. Phosphorous concentration was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the (G1, G2 and G4) before pregnancy. There was no significant difference before and during pregnancy (G3).
 


Table 1. Effect of VêO® premium and ascorbic acid to Iraqi ewes in pregnancy on Calcium  and Phosphorus
         

 
Potassium, Sodium and Magnesium
 
The effect of VêO® premium and ascorbic acid on Iraqi ewes in pregnancy on Potassium, Sodium and Magnesium are presented in Table (2). There was no significant difference in potassium before and during pregnancy. Sodium concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the (G1, G2, G3, and G4) before pregnancy. Magnesium concentration was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the (G2) during pregnancy and (G3) before pregnancy. But no significant differences in (G1 and G4). Potassium and sodium are also necessary for maintaining normal energy metabolism and reproductive physiology to reduce complications of excess sodium intake on blood pressure and keep blood pressure levels, though excess consumption of potassium can cause a problem 5,14.
 


Table 2. Effect of VêO® premium and ascorbic acid to Iraqi ewes in pregnancy on Potassium, Sodium and Magnesium
         
  
 
DISCUSSION

 
Calcium carbonate improves bone strength because of the bone calcium granules supply22. Calcium absorption and metabolism are regulated by calcitriol, which is the presence of ascorbic acid. It increases calcium absorption in early pregnancy to structure the skeleton of the fetus19,15. Calcium affects reproduction in animals through a decrease in milk production and fertility. It has also been found that low calcium affects uterine reflux, which leads to fertility problems in females21. Calcium ion works to suppress the immunity of the female reproductive system to regulate the movement of sperm for fertilization and implantation of the embryo in the uterus by stimulating estrogen hormone secretion12,18.
 
Pregnant females need phosphorus to sustain and sustainable of pregnancy22. The decreased concentration of phosphorus in the stages of pregnancy is due to the stresses occurring in these stages13. A decreased phosphorous level in the feed leads to decreased fertility and ovarian activity, irregular estrous cycles, higher occurrence of cystic ovaries, delayed sexual maturity and reduced conception rates 4 .
 
It may be the cause of low phosphorus during the stages of pregnancy in the current experience of its absence within VêO® premium components.
 
Some studies have shown that increasing potassium and sodium levels in an animal's diet can delay puberty and ovulation, impair corpus luteum development and increase the incidence of anestrous in heifers 21,4. Gestational magnesium deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage and low birth weight9,14. Magnesium deficiency affects ruminants because of its low in food and high potassium in green pastures, which inhibits magnesium absorption in the rumen. This deficiency affects the survival and growth of the fetus and the high rate of fetal malformations24. The study showed that the magnesium level was not affected during pregnancy in ewes.
 
 

CONCLUSION

 
Our study demonstrated that the addition of VêO® premium 2 g or 4 g to the diet improves some minerals before and during pregnancy in Iraqi ewes.
 
 

REFERENCES

 
1.        Alani, O. G. N.; Abdul-Rahaman, Y. T. and Mohammed, Th. Th. Effect Of Vêo® Premium and Vitamin C Supplementation on Lipid Profile Before and During Pregnancy in Some Local Iraqi Ewes During Heat Stress. Iraqi Journal of Science.2021, 62 (7): 2122-2130. doi: 10.24996/ijs.2021.62.7.1
 
2.        Ali, A. F.; Mohammed, Th. T and Al-Bandar, L. K.  Effect of adding different levels of Optifeed®, VêO® Premium and Oleobiotec® to the diets as appetite stimulants in the production and physiological performance of male broiler under heat stress conditions. Plant Archives.2019, 19(1): 1491-1498.
 
3.        Al-Izzi, S. A.; Al-Salehi, K. A. & Al-Jalili, Z. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of normal goat. Proc. 5th. Conf. Iraq –Baghdad.1989, 5: 374-381.
 
4.        Bindari, Y. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shrestha, N. and Gaire, T. N. Effects of nutrition on reproduction- A review. Advances in Applied Science Research.2013, 4(1): 421-429.
 
5.        Choudhary, S. and Singh, A. Role of nutrition in reproduction: A review. Intas Polivet.2004, 5(2): 229- 234.
 
6.        Elrod, C. C. and Butler, W. R. Reduction of fertility and alteration of uterine pH in heifers fed excess ruminally degradable protein, Journal of Animal Science.1993, 71(3): 694-701. doi: 10.2527/1993.713694x.
 
7.        Garner, D. L. and Hafez, E. S. E. Spermatozoa and seminal plasma. In: "Reproduction in farm Animals". Hafez B. and Hafez, E. S. E., Part.2, Chapter 7, 7th ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A wolter Kluwer Co., Philadelphia.2000, USA, p.97.
 
8.        Hafez, E. S. E. and Hafez, B. Folliculogenesis, Egg maturation, and Ovulation. In: "Reproduction in farm Animals". Hafez B. and Hafez, E. S. E., Part.2, Chapter 5, 7th ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, A wolter Kluwer Co., Philadelphia, USA, .2000, p.72.
 
9.        Hovdenak, N. and Haram, K. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology.2012, 164 (2): 127- 132.doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.06.020
 
10.      Hurley, W. L. and Doane, R. M. Recent developments in the roles of vitamins and minerals in reproduction. Journal Dairy Science.1989, 72: 784- 804. doi:10.3168/JDS.S0022-0302(89)79170-0
 
11.      Ismaeel, M. A.; Awad, A. H. and Dhahir, N. N. Assessment of alterations in some blood biochemical and mineral contents concentration before and during pregnancy period in Iraqi ewes of Salah-edin province. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences.2018, 32 (2): 161-165. doi: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153844
 
12.      Jaeger, L. A.; Johnson, G. A.; Ka, H.; Garlow, J. G.; Burghardt, R. C.; Spencer, T. E. and Bazer, F. W. Functional analysis of autocrine and paracrine signalling at the uterine-conceptus interface in pigs. Reproduction Supplements.2001, 58: 191-207.
 
13.      Juma, F. T.; Mahmood, B. M. and Yoseif, A. N. Effect of pregnancy stage and post partum stage on some Haematological and Biochemical Characteristics in mountain Bleak Goat. Al- Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences.2010, 3(1): 44- 52.
 
14.      Khayat, S.; Fanaei, H. and Ghanbarzehi, A. (2017). Minerals in pregnancy and lactation: A review article. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 11(9): QE01-QE05. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2017/28485.10626
 
15.      Ladipo, O. A. Nutrition in pregnancy: mineral and vitamin supplements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2000, 72(1 Suppl.):280S-290S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/72.1.280S
 
16.      McClure, T. J. (1994). Nutritional and Metabolic Infertility in the Cow. Oxon: CAB International, Wallingford.
 
17.      Parkinson, T. J. Infertility in the cow due to functional and management deficiencies. In: Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. Noakes, D. E.; Parkinson, T. J. and England, G. C. W., Part 4, Chapter 22, 10th ed., Elsevier. 2019a, p. 389. doi: 10.1016/C2014-0-04782-X
 
18.      Parkinson, T. J. Reproductive Physiology of Male Animals. In: Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. Noakes, D. E.; Parkinson, T. J. and England, G. C. W., Part 1, Chapter 2, 10th ed., Elsevier. 2019b, p. 47. doi: 10.1016/C2014-0-04782-X
 
19.      Pitkin, R. M. Calcium metabolism in pregnancy and the perinatal period: a review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.1985, 151(1):99-109. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(85)90434-x
 
20.      Saleh, A. F.; Al-Judi, A. H. and Al-Samarraie, S. A. G. Study of some hematological and biochemical parameters of local and Shammi goats in Baghdad. Al- Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences.2010, 3(2): 39- 47.
 
21.      Schweigert, F. J. and Zucker, H. Concentrations of vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin E in individual bovine follicles of different quality. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 1988, 82(2): 575-579. doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.0820575
 
22.      Shiga, A. Effects of calcium carbonate supplementation on Ca, Mg and P metabolism in ewes. The Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science. 1988, 50 (1): 175- 182. doi:10.1292/jvms1939.50.175
 
23.      Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd (ed.,) McGraw Hill, New York.1980, http://www.sciepub.com/reference/54399
 
24.      Windsor, P. Abnormalities of development and pregnancy. In: Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. Noakes, D. E.; Parkinson, T. J. and England, G. C. W., Part 2, Chapter 9, 10th ed., Elsevier. 2019, p. 183. doi: 10.1016/C2014-0-04782-X
 

 
 
Received: July 20th 2022 / Accepted: October 15th 2022 / Published:15 November 2022
 
 
 
Citation: A I, Mohammed Th T, Abdulateef S M, Jebril N 4 Mahmud KI. Role of ascorbic acid and appetite stimulants on a few blood serum biochemical characteristics in pregnant Iraqi ewes under heat stress. Al-Rawi F T, Abdul-Rahaman Y T, Noaman Revis Bionatura 2022;7(4) 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.04.6
Back to content