1. Anatomical, histological and histochimical description of rumen in adult camel (Camelus dromedary) with one humped in southern of Iraq
Zainab A. Salan1, Sawsan A. Ali1 and Alaa H. Sadoon2
1Anatomy and histology Dept., college of veterinary medicine, University of Basrah.
2Veterinary anatomy and histology Dept., college of veterinary medicine, University of Basrah.
Corresponding author: zainab ali salan , [email protected], mobile +9647706081688.
" Abstract: The first chamber (rumen) of the stomach adult of one-humped camel’s (Camelus dromedaries) for twelve samples was studied. An anatomical study showed that the rumen in camels consists of three areas, a smooth upper area and two cysts on the side between them, a muscular groove that divides the rumen into two halves. The rumen connects from the dorsal side to the esophagus, while the ventral side is connected to the reticulum. The study of the inner surface revealed simple zigzag folds formed as a result of filling and emptying the food. As for the two sac, they contain a sphincter divided into main mucous columns that arise from the transverse groove and extend from these two columns another secondary column consisting of chambers or caves. Histologically: As for the histological study of the adult camel's rumen, it revealed the presence of two types of epithelium that make up the stomach tissue. The first type is the stratified squamous epithelial tissue that lines the dorsal surface of the rumen. Without dorsal bags. The other type of epithelium is a simple columnar epithelium lining each of the glandular sacs in the rumen. The lamellar layer appeared as dense connective tissue in areas lined with stratified keratinized squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue in areas lined with simple columnar epithelium. Some blood vessels and nerves. The study also found two types of tubular glands, small and large, in each of the glandular sacs in the rumen, and the tunica muscularis appears in the form of two layers, the transverse muscle layer and the longitudinal layer, where the last layer of the serous tunica consists of loose connective tissue and contains blood vessels and blastocysts. Fibrous layer surrounded by simple squamous tissue Histochemistry: Routine H&E staining was used to study histological layers, as well as Mason's stain to detect collagen fibers. And PAS stain for the detection of carbohydrates and mucin in the tissue.
Keywords: rumen, adult camel, Camelus dromedary
2. Effect of Partial Drip Irrigation Methods on Soil Moisture and Water Potential Distribution, Growth Characteristics and Yield of Maize
Saja M. Ahmed1 and Tareq K. Masood2
1Dep. Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.
2Dep. Soil and Water Resources, Coll. Agric. Engine. Sci., University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during autumn season 2021 at the Agricultural Research Department station / Abu Ghraib, to evaluate the soil moisture,water potential distribution and growth factors of maize crop under the alternating and constant partial drip irrigation methods. In the experiment, two irrigation systems were used, surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface irrigation (SD), under each irrigation system five irrigation methods were: conventional irrigation (CI) and 75 and 50% of the amount of water of CI of each of the alternating partial irrigation APRI75 and APRI50 and the constant partial irrigation FPRI75 and FPRI50 respectively. The results showed that the water depth for conventional irrigation (C1) was 658.3 and 579.4 mm for the DI and SD irrigation system, respectively, and the irrigation depth was reduced to 18% when applied APRI75 and FPRI75 and 37% when applied APRI50 and FPRI50 respectively.The moisture distribution differed according to the irrigation method, and the SD provided a higher moisture content and lower water potential due to the lower rate of evaporation from the soil surface. Also,the growth traits of maize varied according to the irrigation system and its methods. The SD system was significantly superior in the grain yield of maize with an increase of 5.4% compared with DI, as well as the alternating partial irrigation treatments were significantly superior compared with to the constant partial irrigation.
Keywords:Matric suction, Zea mays L., irrigation system, irrigation depth.
3. Detection of Biofilm Formation Among the Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae: Phenotypic and Genotypic Methods
Fatimah E. Alquraishi 1,* , Zainab N. AL-Saadi 2 and Jalal A.T. Al-Azzawi 3
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; [email protected].
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; zalsaad[email protected]. OR-CID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5963-250X.
3 Ministry of Health, Wasit Health Directorate, Wasit Governorate, Iraq; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (+09647726878654)
Abstract: Infections caused by biofilm-embedded pathogens decrease the efficacy of traditional treatments and increase antibiotic tolerance. Most of the human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Therefore, this study aimed todetect the biofilm formation among the clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia that collected from different hospitals in Wasit province-Iraq by phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 525 clinical samples were used to isolate 77 K. pneumoniae strains from clinical specimens throw five months. They were identified by microbiological method as K. pneumoniae. Microtiter plate method used to detect the biofilm formation. Results showed that out of 77 K. pneumonia isolates, 76 (98.7%) isolates were biofilm producers with three different categories; 12 (15.6%) were weak-biofilm producers, while other isolates 63 (81.8%) and 1 (1.3%) were moderate and strong producers, respectively. However, 1 (1.3%) isolates were identified as non- biofilm producers. Amplification of genes by multiplex PCR technique was done for 77 isolates of K. pneumonia to detect biofilm production genes, mrkD and FimH. Results showed that out of 77 isolates there was 74 isolates (94.8%) positive to mrkD, 33 isolates (42.8%) to fimH.
Keywords: K. pneumonia; Microtiter plate method; mrkD; fimH; Iraq.
4. Polymorphism relationship of the fatty acid transport protein SLC27 gene, to some economic and car-cass parameters of broiler
Ali Mohammed Jaafer and Ali A. Abdul-Kareem
Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture and Marshes, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq.
Abstract: This study was conducted at the poultry field, College of Agriculture and the Marshes, University of Thi-Qar from 10/11/2021 to 26/12/2021, and the Molecular Genetics Laboratories at the Marsh Research Center, to determine the FATP gene polymorphism on the some productive and physiological traits of broilers of ROSS 308. A total of 150 birds were used. The results of this study showed the following. The sequence of nitrogenous bases the presence of the mutation G237A, three genotypes were identified: GG, GA, and AA, it was noted that there were significant differences on the distribution ratios of the genotypes of the FATP gene according to the mutation G237A, where the genotype GA recorded the highest percentage, followed by gen-otype GG, and then genotype AA. The G allele frequency is superior to the A, it was noted that there were no significant differences for the genotypes of the G237A mutation on the body weight, no significant differences between the GA, GG and AA genotypes of the FATP gene on the body weight, a significant difference of the genotypes of the G237A mutation on carcass weight, AA genotype outperformed the GG and GA geno-types, , the AA genotype was superior to the GA and GG genotypes on wings relative weight.
Keywords: Polymorphism SLC27 gene, economic, carcass, broiler.
5. Effect mineral fertilization and fertilizer application sites on the nutrient concentra-tions of N, P and K in the vegetative and fruiting part and the productivity of okra
Amer Taha Khudhair1 and Qahtan Jamal Abdulrasool2
1Mesopotamia State Seed Company, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.
2College of Agricultural Engineering, Sciences-University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in one of the farms in the district of Al-Suwaira - Wasit gover-norate for the 2021 agricultural season. To find out the effect of adding levels of NPK and the places of addi-tion on their concentrations in the vegetative and fruiting part and the productivity of the okra crop. Six treat-ments were produced from the fertilizers levels and the addition distances are C2D2,C2D1,C1D2,C1D1,C0D2,C0D1 with three replications, experimental units become 18 units. Com-pletely randomized block design (RCBD) was used in the distribution of tretments. The dry weight and root diameters of the plant were taken and the NPK concentrations were estimated in the vegetative part at the end of the season, as well as the NPK concentrations in the fruiting part of the first and last fairies, and the cumulative yield was taken. The results showed the significant effect of NPK levels on nitrogen and phosphorous concen-trations in the vegetative and fruiting parts, while the effect was not significant on potassium concentration. The position of the fertilizer application did not have a significant effect on the concentration of NPK in the plant. The second level of fertilization C2 had a significant effect on the dry weight of the plant, while the fertilization levels had no significant effect on the diameter of the roots. Fertilizer levels had a significant effect on yield.
Keywords: mineral fertilization, application sites, NPK, okra.
6. Effect of planting dates and potassium levels on the yield and fullness of sunflower grains (Helianthus annuus L.) Shamoos cultivar
Haider Hakim Shamran and Hayder Abdul-Hussain Mohsen Al- Mughair
Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]
Abstract: The study was conducted during spring season (2022), to determine the effect of early planting for four planting dates (18/1, 2/2, 17/2 and 4/3), and four levels of potassium fertilizer (30, 60, 90 and 120) kg ha-1, on the yield and fullness of sunflower grains, cultivar Shamoos, was carried out by arranging the split panels according to a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. The results of the experiment showed significant effects of planting dates on yield and its components, as the planting date exceeds D1 on the grain filling period, the number of grain filled, the weight of 1000 grains, the yield of the individual plant, the biological yield and the percentage of fertilization, the results of the experiment also showed a significant effect of potassium levels on yield traits, the K4 fertilization treatment gave the highest average of the duration of grain filling and the number of filled grains, whereas, the K2 fertilization treatment gave the highest mean for the 1000 grain weight, regarding the interaction between the two factors of the study, the results showed sig-nificant differences between the experimental treatments on the yield, the D1K4 interference treatment gave the highest mean of the grain filling time.
Keywords: planting dates, potassium levels, sunflower grains (Helianthus annuus L.), Shamoos cultivar.
7. Effect of phosphate fertilization and aspartic acid spray on some characteristics of growth and yield of oats Avena sativa L.
Adel Abbas Kareem, Hayder Abdul-Hussain Mohsen Al- Mughair, Qassim A.S. Al-Zayadi
Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Abstract: The experiment was carried out in the Abu Al-Fadl Forest Nursery, the Plant Production Depart-ment, Al-Diwaniyah Agriculture Directorate (3 km north-east of Al-Diwaniyah city) during the winter season 2021-2022, to determine the effect of four levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1) and two concentrations of aspartic acid spray (0 and 200 mg aspartic L-1), on the growth and yield of oats Avena sativa L. Shifa cultivar. The experiment was applied according to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by a split plot, with three replicates. The levels of phosphate fertilizer were distributed in the main plots, while the concentrations of amino acids occupied the sub-plots. The results showed the following: the superiority of plants fertilized at the fertilizer level of 90 kg P ha-1 significantly on the number of tillers, the number of dahl-ias, the weight of a thousand grains g, the biological yield and grain yield, were given 532 tillers m-2, 468.58 dalia m-2, 46.76 g, 56.39 mcg ha-1, and 8.92 mcg ha-1, respectively, the results also showed that the plants treated with aspartic acid (concentration 200 mg L-1) were significantly superior to the number of tillers and the number of dahlias, it gave 527.75 tillers m-2 and 483.58 Dalia m-2. The interaction between the two experi-mental factors (fertilization at a level of 90 kg P ha-1 and spraying with aspartic acid at a concentration of 200 mg L-1) had a significant effect on the biological yield and grain yield.
Keywords: phosphate fertilization, aspartic acid, growth, yield, oats Avena sativa L.
Ahmed Hassan Miteib Hulw, Ali Hussain Salman and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi
Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Abstract: The study was conducted at special cages in mud pond, Agricultural Research and Experiment Sta-tion, Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, from 1/10/2020 to 10/12/2021to study effect of different levels of nutmeg on some growth parameters of common carp. A total of 100 common carp fish, Cyprinus carpio L.were brought from a private fish breeding lake in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Al-Mihnawiya District, with an average weight of ±.94 gm. 80 fish were selected and distributed randomly and evenly to the experimental cages, put in each aquarium 5 fish for the purpose of acclimatization, the fish persisted during the acclimatization period, which amounted to 10 days, were starved for one day and then fed with 1% of the weight of the live mass in each tank at the rate of two meals per day. The four treat-ments were T1 control, T2 0.005%, T3 0.01% and T4 0.015% nutmeg. The results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the final body weight, weight gain, daily growth rate, relative growth rate and specific growth rate in all nutmeg treatments compared to the control treatment.
Keywords: Nutmeg, growth parameters, common carp Cyprinus carpio L.
9. The effect of biochar and perlite on the physical properties of the soil and its ability to retain moisture
Nasser Jassim Mansour and Abdul Mohsin Abdullah Radi
Soil Science and Water Resources, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in clay-textured soil during the agricultural season 2021-2022, at Al-Muthanna Governorate, Al-Suwayr District - Albugrad region, longitude ´´5. 16 ´36°31, and a latitude '0'. 52 ´ 27 ° 45, to study the effect of biochar and perlite on the physical properties of soil and the growth and yield of barley. The experiment was carried out according to a Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with two factors and three replicates, the biochar factor treatments included four levels of biochar at the level (0% B0, 0.5% B1, 1% B2, 1.5% B3), while the treatments of the second factor perlite included four levels, they are the addition of agricultural perlite at the level (0% P0, 0.5% P1, 1% P2, 1.5% P3). Mixing biochar with agricultur-al perlite for all treatments with soil to a depth of 30 cm. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Iba 99 was planted on 1/11/2021. Crop service operations were carried out from adding chemical fertilizers, jungle control and irrigation until the end of the experiment and harvest on 9/9/2022. The results showed the superiority of the B3 biochar treatment (1.5% biochar) on improving most of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, the average weighted diameter of the wet and dry sifters (0.92 and 4.74 mm), while the treatment P3 (1.5% perlite) recorded the highest total porosity of the soil (49.03%).
Keywords: Biochar, perlite, physical properties, soil, moisture
10. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei (CNCM1-1572) Against Esche-richia coli O157:H7 Isolated from Sheep
Ali Jamal Turkey Al-Saadi 1,*, and Sahar Mahdi Hayyawi Al-Rubay 2
1Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] .
2Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +964 780 023 2313
Abstract: This study was based on the importance of the effect of L. paracasei against E.coli O157:H7 that was isolated from sheep suffering from diarrhea in many areas of Baghdad (Abu-Ghraib , AL-Mahmoudia and AL-Yosifiya). All samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar, Eosine Methylene Blue and Sorbitol Mac-Conkey agar for E. coli isolation thenidentified by biochemical tests. out of 101 diarrhea samples, 100 isolates gave positive E.coli results. The isolates of L. paracasei were taken and cultured onconditions at 37ºC for 24 hours Man Rogosa Sharpe broth and incubated under CO2 (5-10%) for 24 hours, then recultured on MRS agar, examined by gram stain and then confirm diagnosis by Vitek2. Lactobacillus paracasei examined against E. coli O157:H7 by well diffusion method and measured the diameters of inhibition zone around colonies. Mice (white Balb) were used as laboratory animals model to investigate the effect and efficacy of L. paracasei to treat diarrhea caused by E .coli O157, 50 mice were divided in to five groups. The histopathological ex-amination for intestine noticed, the changes that occurred during infection with E.coli O157:H7 treated with probiotics.
Keywords: Vitek2; Laboratory technique; MacConkey agar; Histopathology; Iraq.
Mohammed D. M. Saeed 1,*, Atheer A. Abdulazeez 2 and Hameed A.K. Al-Timmemi 3
1Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] .
2Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
3Department of Surgery and Obstetric, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +964 770 299 3201
Abstract: The feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly contagious and infectious virus that infects cats and causes moderate to stringent respiratory infections and oropharyngeal illness. It is very prevalent in shelters and birth-place colonies, and it frequently infects kitten cats. 50 distinct cats were involved in the research, with samples acquired between October 2020 and January 2021. Swabs were taken from the oropharynx and conjunctiva, conditional on the signs of FCV disease septicity, to inspect viral nucleic acid from collecting samples, then extract the RNA from the swabs and turn it into a cDNA particle, and finally distinguishing the open reading frame nucleic acid gene 2 using a primer special for feline calicivirus, All specimens were taken in the province of Baghdad. Real-time PCR and the Ag test kit were used to validate detection and results showed 28 positive results from the rapid Ag kit out of 50 samples while RT-PCR results were 32 positive samples out of 50 samples, then isolation of the virus was done in CRFK feline kidney cell culture in the virology laboratory unit, institution of veterinary medicine university of Baghdad for more detection of FCV. Sequencing and genetic analysis were done and confirmed three isolates were related to highly virulent systemic disease and enteric fe-line calicivirus (E-FCV) form which isolated in Italy.
Keywords: Cat; FCV; Real-time PCR; Genetic analysis
Nasser Jassim Mansour* and Abdul Mohsin Abdullah Radi
Soil Science and Water Resources, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in clay-textured soil during the agricultural season 2021-2022, at Al-Muthanna Governorate, Al-Suwayr District - Albugrad region, longitude ´´5. 16 ´36°31, and a latitude '0'. 52 ´ 27 ° 45, to study the effect of biochar and perlite on growth and yield of barley in clay soil. The experi-ment was carried out according to a Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with two factors and three replicates, the biochar factor treatments included four levels of biochar at the level (0% B0, 0.5% B1, 1% B2, 1.5% B3), while the treatments of the second factor perlite included four levels, they are the addition of agricultural perlite at the level (0% P0, 0.5% P1, 1% P2, 1.5% P3). Mixing biochar with agricultural perlite for all treatments with soil to a depth of 30 cm. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Iba 99 was planted on 1/11/2021. Crop service operations were carried out from adding chemical fertilizers, jungle control and irrigation until the end of the experiment and harvest on 9/9/2022. The results showed the superiority of the B3 biochar treatment (1.5% bi-ochar) in improving most of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, plant height, number of branches and total yield, the superiority of the B2 biochar treatment (1% biochar) in recording the highest weight of 1000 grains, the treatment of perlite P1 (0.5% perlite) was superior in recording the highest weight of 1000 grains, the superiority of the B3P3 interaction treatment in recording the highest value of the number of branches in the plant.
Keywords: Biochar, perlite, growth, yield, barley, clay soil.
13. Effect mineral fertilization and fertilizer application sites on the concentrations of N, P and K nutrients in the vegetative and fruiting part and eggplant productivity
Amer Taha Khudhair* and Qahtan Jamal Abdulrasool2
1Mesopotamia State Seed Company, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.
2College of Agricultural Engineering, Sciences-University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in one of the farms in the district of Al-Suwaira - Wasit gover-norate for the 2021 agricultural season. To find out the effect of adding levels of NPK and the sites of addition on their concentrations in the vegetative and fruiting part and the productivity of the eggplant crop. The study included three levels of NPK and were given the symbols (C0, C1, C2) and two places to add fertilizer 10 and 20 cm next to the plant and they were given the symbols D2, D1 sequentially. Six treatments were produced from the fertile levels and the addition distances are C2D2,C2D1,C1D2,C1D1,C0D2,C0D1 with three replica-tions, experimental units become 18 unit. Completely randomized block design (RCBD) was used in the dis-tribution of treatments. The dry weight and root diameters of the plant were taken and the NPK concentrations were estimated in the vegetative part at the end of the season, as well as the NPK concentrations in the fruiting part of the first and last fairies, and the cumulative yield was taken. The results showed the significant effect of NPK levels on nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in the vegetative and fruiting parts, while the effect was not significant on potassium concentration. The position of the fertilizer application did not have a signifi-cant effect on the concentration of NPK in the plant. The level of the second fertilization C2 had a significant effect on the dry weight of the plant. Fertilization levels had a significant effect on root diameter and yield.
Keywords: Mineral fertilization, application, NPK, eggplant.
Shaimaa A. Shlash1, Huda A. Saleh2, Fatima Radawi Almashhady3
1 Department of clinical laboratory sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kufa University, Iraq, [email protected]
2 Department of clinical laboratory sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kufa University, Iraq [email protected]
3 D Hilla University College, Babylon, Iraq [email protected]
Abstruct: Hymenolepis nana is common parasitic diseases world spread mostly in the children. The goal of the present study; circulation anti-parasites antibody responses against H. nana in the symptomatic and asymp-tomatic Al-Najaf province, children with assured hymenolepiasis were examined. Symptomatic patients were specific used as followed; existence of H.nana eggs in the feces with more of symptoms as diarrhea, abdominal pain, losing weight, flatulency, appetite loss and nausea. Been measured anti-parasite of the humoral immune response by used indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and ELISA. Where was noticed significantly disparity in the anti-parasite antibody of response when measuring by IFA of the asymptomatic and symptomatic of pa-tients where was more than 37% in asymptomatic of patients have titer 1:500 or lower and more than 28% in symptomatic of patients have titer of 1:8000 or higher. The circulation of anti-parasite overall IgM and IgA when measuring by ELISA is significantly higher of symptomatic than of asymptomatic in the patients, as re-garding to upper egg production showed in the symptomatic peoples.
Keywords: Hymenolepis nana, Cysticercoids, asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, Antibody response
Mushtaq Talib Al-Safi
Ministry of Education, General Directorate of Education in Thi-Qar, Iraq
Tel: 07816196964; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder and genetic factors strongly contribute to a genetic predisposition to developing the disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic and molecular indi-cators of some Iraqi patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study included (100) patients with rheumatoid ar-thritis with (100) healthy individuals who attended Al-Hussain General Teaching Hospital, Department of Ar-thritis and joints Centre, al Blood Bank in Baghdad for the period from the beginning of January 2022 until the end of March 2022. The patients were diagnosed under the supervision of medical committees specialized in joint diseases. The human leukocyte antigen is one of the important genetic factors in regulating the immune response, as these antigens contribute to the susceptibility to disease. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II (Class-II- HLA-DR, -DQ) was genotyped using lymphocytotoxicity assay and PCR-SSP method. The results showed that there was a significant increase in the recurrence of human leukocyte antigens (DR4 R53,) in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the healthy ones, as well as an increase in the recurrence of human leukocyte antigens (HLA-DQ3) with a significant difference in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the healthy ones. Regarding HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles, it was found that there was a significant increase in the frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 (01-22 not 0415) compared to healthy controls, while the percentage of HLA-DRB1*0701 alleles was less frequent in patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the frequency of HLA-DQB1*03(02,07) alleles was high in the patients compared to the healthy ones, while HLA-DQB1*0303 showed a highly significant difference in the healthy group compared to the patients.
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, genetic factors, HLA-DRB1, -DQB1 alleles, PCR.
16. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection and Vitamin D deficiency, hemoglobin, dietary habits and other variables in kids aged (6-18) years: across sectional study at an Iraqi children’s hospital
Mahmood Razzaq Mashar Askar1, Zainab Waleed Jasim Al-Mashhadany2
1Imam AL-Kadhum College, Baghdad
2Laboratory Department- Children's Hospital- kirkuk, Iraq
1 Imam AL-Kadhum College, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected]. ORCID
2 Laboratory Department- Children's Hospital- kirkuk, Iraq ; [email protected] . ORCID
* Correspondence: ; [email protected] .
Abstract: Background: Several studies have shown a correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and vitamin D, but there is considerable disagreement. The goal of this study was to see if there was a relationship between vitamin D3 deficiency on the one hand, dietary habits on the other hand and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in kids patients in a child hospital in Iraq.Methods: In 2022, in a child hospital in Iraq, a cross-sectional study was done on 1600 patients. A structured questionnaire used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, and a short food frequency questionnaire used to determine dietary patterns (FFQ). After a blood sample from the vein taken, the H. pylori status (positive vs. negative) was identified. The stool and blood samples were all collected and sent to the hematology, chemistry and parasitology lab for examination. Logistical multivariable to determine the relationship between socio-demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, and other factors, regression used. With H.pylori infection, there are a number of health-related issues to consider.Results: In this sample, the prevalence of H. pylori infection reported to be 62.8%. The multivariable analysis revealed that the risk of H. pylori infection was higher among those are not follow a healthy eating habits, their parents not educated. As the study found that Vit.D3 deficiency increased in the girls more than it is in the boys.Conclusions: H. pylori is associated with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Considerations more research needed to determine the impact of diet on H. pylori risk.
Keywords: Iraq, Vit.D3 deficiency, dietary habits, hemoglobin, factor analysis, Helicobacter pylori infection, kids.
Azhar Imran Alawadi 1, and Aseel Mohammed Al-Khafaji 2,*
1Department of Prosthetic dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] . https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0560-444X
2Department of Prosthetic dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] . https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7172-7026
Abstract: This study was aimed for evaluation of the surface changes of commercial pure Titanium disks (CP Ti) and the Ti 13Nb 13 Zr (Alloy) with zigzag pattern of laser surface treatment. In vitro, experimental study of CNC Laser treatment on the CP Ti and Alloy disks. texturing the surfaces of CP Ti and Alloy disks via using CNC laser, then the samples disks analyzed by usingsurface roughness, wettability and FESEM. the FESEMreveal proper increase in the surface texturing and roughness on macro and micro measures without crack formation or dramatic change of the core substance of the CP Ti and Alloy disks. the CNC laser consid-ered an effective and suitable method for surface texturing of CP Ti and Alloy for dental implantology.
Keywords: Commercial pure Titanium; Ti 13 Zr 13 Nb alloy; CNC Laser; Laser surface texturing; Dental implantand surface roughness
Luay Hatem Jalil1*, Abdul Sattar M. Segar2
"1 College of Dentristy, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq ; Lua[email protected]. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5864-8238
2 College of Dentistry, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq Sttars[email protected] . ORCID: https://orcid.org/ 0000-0003-0931-7947
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +964 770 289 4281
Abstract: A set of eight consecutive cases of an intranasal tooth that was removed endoscopically over a pe-riod of 10 years will be used to characterize the clinical experience of the group as a whole. Reviewing the medical records of eight patients who underwent endoscopic intranasal tooth extraction at Baghdad medical city between the years 2010 and 2020 allowed for the performance of a retrospective study to be carried out. Fol-lowing surgery, all patients had a smooth recovery and a full relief of their presenting symptoms. 3 months to 10 years, 3 months of follow-up (average, 6-year 3 months). A total 11 of extracted teeth were extra, and two were ectopic permanent canines. In our experience, endoscopic extraction of an intranasal tooth has good illu-mination, clear visibility, and precise dissection. Endoscopic intranasal tooth extraction is well-lit, clear, and exact. Endoscopic tooth extraction enables greater illumination, visualization, and dissection. We recommend utilizing a rigid endoscope regularly to treat intranasal teeth.
Key Words: Endoscopy; migrated tooth; Extraction; Nasal sinus
Salma A. Hjab Alsaaeidi1 and Ali B. Mohsen Al-Waaly1
1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Iraq
Abstract: The study included a survey of intestinal parasites of patients infected with the emerging corona-virus, COVID-19 in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate, from October 2021 to June 2022, aimed to study the effect of Parasitic infection associated with Covid-19 patients in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, by examining 211 pa-tients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-COVID-19), their infection was confirmed by Real time PCR method in the laboratories of Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital. The results show that the single parasitic infections were more common in COVID-19 patients, the rate of parasitic infection associated with corona disease was more in cities than in the countryside, males were affected more than females, the age group (31-50) was more susceptible to infection, the rates of infection with parasitic species associated with Covid-19 patients varied, as a higher level of infection was recorded with Entamoeba spp with 66.66%, dwarf tapeworm H. nana by 16.66%, Giardia lamblia parasite G. lamblia by 10%, and finally Ascaris lumbricoides by 8.33% and 10.33%.
Keywords: protozoa , helminths, covid-19, SARS-COVID-19.
20. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation the Biological Activity of Some New Thiazolidine Derivatives Derived from Schiff bases
Hussam Z. Naji 1, Eman M . Hussain2,*
1,2Department of Chemistry / College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn-Al-Haitham) University of Baghdad..
Available from: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7615-6998
*Corresponding author:[email protected].
Abstract: In this research a new compounds were synthesized via the reaction of dichloroacetic acid with two moles of piperidine . The novel acid 1 was converted to its ester 2. Acid hydrizide 3 was prepared by reaction of hydrazine hydrate with new ester 2 which was later used to prepare derivatives of Schiff bases 4-13, at the last step Schiff bases and thioglycolic acid were reacted to give thiazolidine derivatives 14-23. All of these com- pounds were diagnosed by using of melting points , FTIR, 1HNMR and mass spectroscopy. Scheme 1 shown the all reaction steps and the structure of the synthesis compounds..
Keywords: Thiazolidine ; Schiff bases ; biological activity ; piperidine ; dichloroacetic acid .
21. Detection of the Susceptibility Test ,Biofilm Formation and Efflux Pumps in Escherichia Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection
Zahraa M. Kareem 1,* and Qanat M. Atiyea 2
"1 Ministry of Health, Al Rasheed Health Center, Kirkuk Health Directorate, Kirkuk, Iraq.; e-mail: [email protected]
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Tikrit University, Salahaddin, Iraq.; ORCID
Abstract: Urinary tract infection(UTI) are infectious diseases of the urinary system ,that are caused by several causative agent ,including parasites ,viruses ,fungi and bacteria . The most frequent cause of UTI is the bacte-ria Escherichia coli (E.coli). Antibiotic resistance in E.coli has been linked to overexpression of the efflux sys-tem. Our aim in This study was to isolate various bacteria from UTI and then select E.coli isolates to study the prevalence of the efflux pumps genes TetA and MdfA .This study included a collection 150 midstream urine samples from patients suffering from UTI (115 females and 35 males) with age ranged between(5-70)years . The results showed that only 100 samples exhibited bacterial growth , 72.5% referred to female patients ,while 27.5% referred to male patients. Infection with bacteria occurred most frequently in the age group of 21-30 years. Bacterial isolates were identified by macroscopic and microscopic examination ,biochemical test and VITEK2 system ,the result showed that 40% of these growth were confirmed to be E.coli,19% Klebsiella pneumonia,17% Staph.aureus,13%Proteus mirabilis,7% Pseudomonas aeroginosa,2% Staph.saprophyticus,1%Proteus vulgaris and 1%Enterobacter cloaca .The results of sensitivity to antibiotics showed that UPEC isolates were completely resistant to novobiocin and rifampin 100%,ampicillin 87.5% ,cefotaxime 85%, tetracycline82.5% , ciprofloxacin77.5% ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50% ,gentamicin 22.5% ,nitrofurantion 17.5% and meropenem 2.5%. All of the isolates were multidrug resistance .the result biofilm-formation ability of E.coli isolates showed that 31/40(77.5%) of isolates producing biofilm were di-vided into three groups : 1 (2,5%) was strong biofilm formation ,4(10%) were moderate and 26(65 %) were weak. The phenotypic detection of the efflux pumps was observed in 100% of the bacterial isolates at a con-centration of 0.5 mg/l of ethidium bromide(ETBR). The prevalence of the TetA and MdfA efflux pumps genes were 72.5% each of them .The gel electrophoresis showed that the molecular weight of TetA and MdfA genes were 131bp and 403bp respectively.
Keywords: Efflux pumps, Urinary Tract, Infection, Parasites, E-coli.
22. Association of Osteoarthritis to Thyroid Dysfunction, and to Bodily and Demographic Characteristics
Hussein Adnan Mohammed 1, and U.A. Al-Sari 2,*
"1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. ORCID
2 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq. ORCID
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a commonly prevalent and chronically complicated condition, which affecting different joints in the body of millions of patients, worldwide, leading to a cumulative effect over time. Due to few global prospective studies, this study investigated association of OA to bodily and demographic character-istics of study population and to demonstrate the levels of thyroid hormones in OA patients. Totally, 324 indi-viduals; 162 normal (GN), 111 doubtful to minimal OA (GOA1) and 51 moderately to severe OA (GOA2) were subjected to this study during September to December (2021). For bodily characteristics of study popula-tion, the findings of age, height and gender showed that there were insignificance between study groups, but not in weight and BMI. Regarding demographic data, level of education, non-smoking and smoking, and non-arthritis and arthritis population were associated almost insignificantly to OA patient except for GOA2 pa-tients who showed a significant correlation to OA when compared to GOA1 and GN. For chronic diseases, association was observed insignificantly between GOA1, GOA2 and GN of 1 and 2 chronic diseases, and between GOA1 and GN of 3 and 4 chronic diseases; however, significance was recorded in values of GOA2 in comparison with values of GOA1 and GN. For physical activity, significance was observed in values of low and high but not in medium activities. Results of without and with walking aids were variable significantly in particular in values of GOA2 when compared to GOA1 and GN. Findings of TSH, T3 and T4 of GOA1, GOA2 and GN were correlated significantly. Association of TSH to severity of OA was revealed an obvious significance in values of crude, adjusted 1 and 2 models. In conclusion, this study appeared to be the first Iraqi reports and furthermore studies are necessary due to significant association between OA and thyroid hormones dysfunction.
Keywords: OA, T3, T4, TSH, Risk factor, Iraq.
23. Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Capparis spinosa L. roots ex-tract in complete freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in mice
Rand J.A. Jalebawi 1,*, and Amer Hakeem Chyad 2
"1 Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] .
2 Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +964 780 458 0041
Abstract: This study aimed to estimate ant-arthritic activity of Capparis spinosa L. roots extract in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis mice by assessment of paw thickness, serological detection of in-flammatory markers [rheumatoid factor (RF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-)] using ELISA, and his-topathology. Totally, 30 male mice were selected, prepared, and divided equally to five groups including 2 con-trol (NC and PC)and 3 experimental; EG1 (arthritis mice treated full effective dose of extract), EG2(arthritis mice treated full effective dose of Diclofenac Sodium), and EG3 (arthritis mice treated a half effective dose of each the extract and Diclofenac). Clinically, the extract administration lowered the paw thickness from day 7th onwards the 21st day of study; while, the extract administration have lowered the paw thickness in EG1 from day 7th onwards as compared to EG2 and EG3. For hematology, significant decreases were reported in RBCs, HCT, Hb, WBCs and neutrophils due to arthritis, and significant amelioration was seen obviously in mice of EG1 as a result of therapy. Significant increases in values of platelets, lymphocytes and monocytes were ob-served in PC and experimentally groups, with significant improving for values of treated groups due to thera-py, in particular, EG1. Values of MCV, MCH, MCHC, basophils and eosinophils of all study groups were differed insignificantly. Concerning RF, highest significant value was reported in PC while the lowest in NC, but without significance differences between values of EG1, EG2 and EG3. For TNF-, elevation had record-ed in mice of PC; whereas, reduction in NC, EG1 and EG3. Also, value of EG2 was significantly higher than recorded in mice of EG1 and EG3. Concerning histology, the findings of EG1 were revealed a significant amiolration when compared to other groups. In conclussion, C. spinosa L. roots extract demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity. Furthermore studies to detect therapeutic effects of the roots extract on other systemic or local diseases are needed.
Keywords: Paw thickness; Rheumatoid factor; Inflammatory markers; Diclofenac Sodium; Iraq
Mustafa Kasid 1, Rawaa AlChalabi 2,* and Faisal Harith 3
1 Department of Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] .
2 Department of Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
3 Urology Department, Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: One hundred and eighty-nine subjects from Baghdad enrolled in this study (110 female and 79 male) and gathered into two investigated groups; the first group consisted of 149 patients, and the second group consisted of 40 healthy individuals. Results revealed after clinical laboratory diagnosis of urine samples 12 (8.1%) gave a negative bacterial culture and 137 (91.9%) were positive culture while all urinesamples of healthy control were negative. Gram staining and microscopic examination of bacterial colonies showed that 11(8.03%) out of 137 isolates were identified as Gram-positive bacteria, 126 (91.97%) isolates as Gram-negative bacteria. After biochemical analysis and diagnosis by the Vitik system, the data demonstrated that all UTIs cases were caused by a single infectious agent and UPEC represented the most common bacterial agent, because of several virulence factors responsible for its pathogensity.The testtube method and Congo red agar mediumhave been used to detect biofilm formation. Results demonstrate that 129 (94.16 %) of bacterial isolates were producers while just 8 (5.84 %) were non-producers. The results of the micro titer plate method revealed that the isolates were categorized into four groups: Strong, moderate, weak, and negative. 22 (63.5%) were strong biofilm producers, 28 (20.449%) moderate producers, 14 (10.22%) weak producers, and 8 (5.84%) were unable to form biofilm. Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were estimated by Sandwich ELISA, which were significantly higher in patients with different types of UTIs than the healthy group. This study was concluded that the UPEC represented the most common prevalent agent of UTIs and more efficient biofilm producer bacteria. The test tube method is the best qualitative, quick, and easy detection method of bio-film formation, while the microtiter plate is the best quantitative and sensitive method. Positive significant cor-relation was found between biofilm formation and elevated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines,which are proportionally increased with advanced and sever UTIsspecially in old persons.
Keywords: UTIs; ELISA; IL-1β; IL-6; IL-8; Iraq
25. In Vitro Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas savastoni Isolated from Ol-ive Trees in Iraq on Fruits of Various Plant Species and its Detec-tion by Polymerase Chain Reaction (BCR)
Ghaith A. A. Al-obaidy1*, Ali I. IlBas2, Safae A. H. AL-kawthary3
"1,2,3Department of plant protection - Faculty of Agriculture - Erciyes University. Turkey.
Abstract: In this study, after a field survey of olive trees in some northern areas in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and in the province of Dohuk, samples were collected for bacteria Pseudomonas Savastonifrom olive trees infected with olive knot from. The period from the beginning of March until the end of May, for the diagnosis of Pseudomonas Savastoni. After activating the bacteria, we started inoculating the bacteria on the fruits of other plants such as carrots, lemons, beans, local apples and hidden apples. These fruits were subjected to the same environmental conditions of humidity, temperature and incubation period. However, no symptoms of infection of the fruits with this bacteria appeared, only the carrots were found to be infected with this bacteria after 13 days of incubation, but after 20 days, the bacteria had infected all the carrots. We isolated the bacteria again from the infected carrot and performed all microscopic, phenotypic and biochemical tests, and subjected the bacterial isolates to a device determined by using the VITEK2 system to identify the type of bacteria. Of bacteria and we conducted molecular tests on them, such as the test PCR and the test RT-PCR for the gene 16S r RNA, and after the results appeared, the isolates were subjected to genetic sequencing to ensure the occurrence of genetic mutations of the gene 16S r RNA.
Keywords: Pseudomonas Savastoni, 16S r RNA, RT-PCR, VITEK2, Sequencing
26. Effect of perlite and nitrogen level on potassium availability and absorption in soil, growth and yield of wheat plant
Sinaa Sattar Jabbar* and Hanoon Nahi Kadhem
Soil Science and Water Resources, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Abstract: This study was conducted at Al Majd area in Al Muthanna Governorate (Away from the city center about 5 km to the north), to study the effect of perlite and nitrogen level on potassium availability and absorp-tion in soil, growth and yield of wheat plant, during the agricultural season 2022-2021. A factorial field ex-periment, according to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The experiment included two factors, the first factor is the addition of perlite with three levels (0, 1.5 and 3)% symbolized by B0, B1 and B2 respectively, while the second factor is nitrogen at five levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200) kg N ha-1 has the symbol N0, N1, N2, N3 and N4 respectively. The land was divided into plots, included 45 ex-perimental units in three blocks, the area of the experimental unit (2 × 2) m2 The experimental unit included 8 lines with a length of 2 m, the distance between one line and another was 20 cm, leave a distance of 75 cm be-tween one replicate and another. The seeds of wheat (Bohooth 22 cultivar) were sown on 11/11/2021. The re-sults indicated the significant effect of adding perlite at a level of 3% by volume to the soil in increasing the ready potassium in the soil when adding the first and second batch of nitrogen and harvesting, the addition of perlite at a level of 3% by volume of the soil affected the growth characteristics of the plant, including the bio-logical yield, grain yield, potassium concentration in the plant, and the absorbed amount of potassium in the plant, nitrogen fertilizer to the soil at a level of (150 and 200) kg N ha-1 had a significant effect on the increase of ready potassium in the soil in the first and second batch of adding fertilizer.
Keywords: Perlite, nitrogen, potassium availability and absorption, soil, growth, yield, wheat plant.
27. The correlation between serum TIM-3 and TIM-3 gene expression in sample of Multiple Sclerosis Iraqi patients
Fadel Shaker Hammood1*and Bushra Jasim Mohammed2
2Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Post Graduate Studies,University of Baghdad ,Iraq, [email protected]
2Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Post Graduate Studies,University of Baghdad ,Iraq
Corresponding authors: [email protected] ,
Abstract: Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by auto- reactive T cells against myelin antigens. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin -3 (TIM-3) is a negative regulator glycoprotein expressed by a range of immune cells, A defect in TIM-3 regulation has been shown in multiple sclerosis patients. This study was planned to investigatethe correlation between serum TIM-3 and TIM-3 gene expression in sample of Multiple Sclerosis Iraqi patients. Material and methods: Three ml of blood samples was collected from fifty Iraqi patents suffered from Multiple Sclerosis (men and women) with age ranged between 20-57 years, and 50 apparently healthy volunteers as a control group; 0.25ml of blood put in Trizol tube for RNA extraction, subsequently to estimate TIM-3 gene expression by one step RT-qPCR, and 2.75 ml of blood placed in to gel tube for determination TIM-3 serum level by enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) , the Statistical analysis was done by using program of Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Results: There was significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in TIM-3 gene expression for patients (5.30 fold) when compared with control (7.86 fold).Moreover the result demonstrated a high significant elevated (P ≤ 0.01) in TIM-3 serum level of patients (0.398 pg/ml) as compared to control (3.17 pg/ml. Furthermore, the findings showed acquire strong positive association between TIM-3 serum level and TIM-3 mRNA expression with significant differences. Conclusion: The current study concluded that the TIM-3 gene expression and TIM-3 serum level were high in MS patients, and there was a direct positive relationship between TIM-3 gene expression and TIM-3 serum level .
Keywords: MS, TIM-3, , RT-qPCR.,ELISA
28. Effect of adding different levels of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) aqueous extract to Tris extender on the Motility, Viability and some characteristics of rams semen stored at 5 °C
Zina Rashid Khirija AL-Badri1,* and Husam Jasim Hussein Banana2
1University of Baghdad, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Department of Animal Production; [email protected]
2 University of Baghdad, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Department of Animal Production
Abstract: This study was conducted to show the effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) to Tris extender and its effect on the semen traits of Awassi rams after preservation at a cooling of 5° C for different periods (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours). This study was conducted in the animal field and laboratories of the Department of Animal Production , College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Uni-versity of Baghdad in Jadiriyah from November 15, 2021 to April 25, 2022. Three local Awassi rams were used in this experiment, their ages ranged from 2.5-3.0 years. The semen was collected from them by artificial vagina by one ejaculation/ram/week, for a period of 8 weeks. The semen of rams has been mixed in order to eliminate individual differences. The following tests were conducted in order to evaluate the semen characteris-tics for each individual motility, the percentage of viability sperm, total abnormalities, the integrity of the plas-ma membrane and the integrity of the acrosome .The results of the current study showed that the of addition aqueous extract of the leaves of the artichoke plant (Cynara scolymus L.) led to an improvement in most of the studied traits when stored in preservation. The results indicated a highly significant (P<0.01) for the treatments T1, T2 and T4, which amounted to (87.00 ± 1.86, 85.50 ± 2.02 and 86.87 ± 0.78%) compared to the control group (C), which amounted to (77.25 ± 2.11%), While the previous treatments did not differ significantly with treatment T3, which amounted to (81.87 ± 2.94%) in the percentage of live sperm during the 0 hour preserva-tion period. While the results indicated that there were no significant differences between treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 compared to the control treatment and for all periods (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) in the individual motility of the sperm. As for measuring the biochemical traits of seminal plasma, The results of AST and ALT en-zymes indicated that there was no significant increase between treatments during one period, while an arithme-tic superiority occurred after 72 hours of preservation for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 compared with the 0 hour preservation period. It is concluded from the current study that adding aqueous extract of (Cynara Scolymus) artichoke leaves to Tris extender improved the semen quality of Awassi rams after preservation.
Keywords: Ram, Semen, Antioxidants, Cooling , artichoke , Cynara scolymus
29. Effect of Adding Levels of Palm Fronds Compost and Mineral Fertilizer on Fertile Soil Characteristics, Quality, and Produc-tivity of Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)
Abeer Mounir Abdel Hadi 1 and Bushra Mahmoud Alwan 2
1 Agricultural Research Department - Ministry of Agriculture
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in one of the fields of the Soil Research Department - Agricultural Research Department/Ministry of Agriculture in the Abu Ghraib district at latitude 33° 17" 31 N and longitude 44° 03" 56 E and 35 m above sea level. This field study was conducted in the autumn season 2021-2022 for the cultivation of yellow maize ( Maha cultivar) in sedimen-tary soil with silty clay loam texture, with a Split Plot Design. The treatments were distributed using the RCBD for three replicates with two factors. The first factor represents the main plots that include the addition of mineral fertilizer 120, 80, 320 kg.ha-1 for each of (N, P, and K), re-spectively at three levels (0, 50, and 100%) of the fertilizer recommendation. On the other hand, the second factor was a subplot of organic fertilizer (palm fronds compost) at three levels (0, 5, and 10) μg.ha-1. Soil samples were taken to estimate the availability of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, where the total yield and percentage of protein for yellow maize were estimat-ed. The results showed that the addition of organic fertilizers (palm fronds) with the levels of mineral fertilizers achieved an increase in the availability of nutrients and the yield of maize. Accordingly, the treatment O2M2 achieved the highest values of nutrient availability, quantity, and quality of yield, reaching (59.167, 33.407, and 257.967) mg.kg-1 soil and (10,096) μg.ha-1 and (9.435%) for each of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, yield, and protein percentage, respec-tively. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the treatments of O1M2 and O2M1 in the amount of yield and the percentage of protein, which gave the values of 8.403 and 8.134 μg.ha-1 respectively, and the protein percentage of 8.630 and 8.915% respectively. It can be concluded that organic fertilizers can be added to compensate for mineral fertilizers and reduce environmental pollution and reduce the economic cost and soil preservation because organic fertilizers are considered safe and environmentally friendly.
Key word: Maize, Fertile Soil, Palm Fronds
30. Effect of adding vermicompost, ammonium sulfate and ferti-lizer batches on the absorbed amounts of some nutrients and the yield and quality of summer squash
Murooj Nabeel Azeez 1, Bushra Mahmoud Alwan 2
"1Ministry of Agriculture. Iraq
2College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad
Corespondeing anther email: [email protected]
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at one of the research stations of the College of Ag-ricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad in Al-Jadiriyah region for autumn sea-son 2021, located within latitude 33.27 north and longitude 44.39 east in Silty Loam soil with a split -split plot design with three replicates. To study the effect of adding vermicompost and ammonium sulfate fertilizers and batches on the yield and quality of summer squash, nitrogen fertilizer was added at three levels (100%, 0, 50%) from the fertilizer recommendation (0, 80, 160) kg N ha-1 (N0, N1, N2). ) respectively, using ammonium sulfate fertilizer containing (21% N) and organic fertilizer (vermicompost) were added at three levels (0, 5, 10) Mg ha-1 (V0, V1, V2) re-spectively, fertilizers were added in two batches after (10, 20) days of planting and three batches after (10,20 and 40) days of planting. The first batch was added after 10 days of planting. The concentration (N and P) in the fruits were measured, the amount of the total yield, the percent-age of protein and the percentage of total soluble solids (TSS) and fruit hardness. The results showed the significant effect of adding vermicompost and ammonium sulfate fertilizers, the number of batches on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous absorbed in the fruits, the total yield, the percentage of protein in the fruits, the percentage of total soluble solids (TSS) and the hardness of the fruits.The treatment P2V2N1 excelled and gave the highest amount of nitrogen absorbed in the fruits was 1995 kg N ha-1 and phosphorous absorbed in the fruits amounted to 172.10 kg P ha-1 and the highest total yield reached 21.53 Mg ha-1 and the percentage of protein in the fruits amounted to 36.63% and the percentage of total soluble solids TSS amounted to 4.90% and the hardness of the fruits amounted to 10.27 B. From this, we conclude that by adding nitrogen fertilizer at the first level (N1) (80 kg N ha-1) and organic fertilizer (V2) (10 Mg ha-1) and in two batches (P2) we got the highest yield and the highest qualitative traits of hardness, pro-tein percentage and TSS . Thus, we conclude that the organic fertilizer improved the qualitative traits and gave the highest yield and compensated for a part of the mineral fertilizer, as well as that the organic fertilizer has a role in raising the absorption efficiency of (N and P).
Keyword: vermicompost fertilizer, ammonium sulfate fertilizer, summer squash.
31. Biological control of the fungi causing root rot disease of Egg-plant plants
Rami Abdul Rahman Abdullah and Ahed Abd Ali Hadi Matloob*
Al-Mussaib Technical College, University of Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical, 51009, Babylon, Iraq.
*Corresponding author: : [email protected]
Abstract:The study aimed to identify some causes of eggplant root rot disease after isolation and diagnosis in some areas of Babylon Governorate and to evaluate the efficiency of the biological fungus Trichoderma harzianum and extract of some plants in control the pathogens of eggplant seedling death disease. The results of the field survey that was conducted in the fields of egg-plant plants in the province of Babylon showed the presence of the root rot of the eggplant in all areas covered by the field survey. Several types of fungi were isolated and identified from the roots of eggplant plants infected with root rot disease. The most frequent pathogenic fungi was Fusarium solani, followed by Rhizoctonia solani, then Macrophomina phaseolina. The results showed that all tested fungi isolates were pathogenic and caused a significant reduction in the percentage of germination of cabbage and eggplant seeds. The results of the pot experiment showed that all the treatments that included the biological factor and aqueous Acacia extract had a significant effect in reducing the growth of pathogenic fungi, especially when the treatments were combined together, as measured by the percentage of infection and the severity of infec-tion in the treatment of pathogenic fungi F. solani, R. solani and M. phaseolina, Alone, the infec-tion rate was 100.00%, and the severity of the infection was 76.67, 70.00 and 66.67%, respectively. The treatment of integration between the biological factor T. harzianum and the aqueous extract of Acacia achieved high superiority in reducing the infection rate, as it ranged between 11.11-24.33% and the severity of infection 4.44-15.00%.
Keyword: Plant extracts , Eggplant, fungi, root rot, Trichoderma harzianum.
32. Effect of oily extracts on chemical parameters of frozen-stored beef Berker
Rana Qassim Mahood Issa 1 and Batoul A.A. Abdulrahem 1
"1 Department of Food Sciences/College of Agricultural Engineering/University of Baghdad/Baghdad/Iraq
Corespondeing email: [email protected]
Abstract: In this study, the oil extracts of Swiss chard and watercress were prepared and the active substances were detected by qualitative and quantitative detection using the chromatog-raphy mass spectrometry-GC\MS technique, calculating the percentage of its yield, then intro-ducing the oil extracts into the preparation of bovine birch, and studying the effect of these ex-tracts on chemical indicators such as the number of peroxide PV. And thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and free fatty acids (FFA) during the storage period (0,15,30). It was noted that the oily extract of chard and watercress contained tannins, carbohydrates, phenols, resins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids, but did not contain glycosides, between compounds, coumarins, and extracts such as 18. With a number of active compounds in it, it was noted that the chemical indicators recorded PV (2.26,1.96)% mEq/kg fat and TBA( 0.43, 0.38)% mg Malone Aldehyde/kg meat TVN (2.46,2.38)% mg N/100 gm meat and FFA( 0.18, 0.17)% in beef burger to which the oil extract was added, which increased slightly and not significantly with increasing storage period and up to a period of 30 days, which led to change The chemical properties com-pared to the control sample.
Key word: volatile nitrogen, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acid
33. Matrix Metalloproteinase-20 immunolocalization in rat first molar tooth development after treatment with amoxicillin
Tabarak Sabah , Nada M.H. AL-Ghaban
Oral Diagnosis Department, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Objective: Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in children. It is therefore administered as the first choice of antibiotics for respiratory, gastrointestinal, neuronal, and skin infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether if amoxicil-lin use affects the formation of dentin and enamel during the secretion and early phases of min-eralization .Materials and Methods: Sixteen pregnant adult Wistar rats were equally divided into two groups. The first group that do not received drug and prescribed with a saline solution (control group), the other group received 250 mg/kg/day amoxicillin (study group). The treat-ments were daily administered by oral gavage from the 13th gestation day to the end of gesta-tion. After birth, the newborn were also received the same treatment as their mothers from first day of birth until 7 or 12 day after birth. The newborns will be sacrificed at 7 and 12 days post-natally, the jaws will be dissected, and taking the maxilla ,were the samples fixed in 10% for-maldehyde solution and the upper first molars were analyzed immunostaining with MMP-20 on day7 and 12 were performed .Results: Significant difference in positive expression of ameloblast for MMP20 antibody between groups was observed at 7 days (P = 0.014) and not significant dif-ference at 12 day (P = 0.347).And not significant difference for positive expression of odontoblast for MMP20 antibody between groups in both duration were observed at 7 days (P = 0.178) and not significant difference at 12 day (P = 0.143) and highly strong expression in enamel matrix during early mineralization stage in control group and strong expression in study group.Conclusion: The current findings indicate that amoxicillin effect the expression of MMP20 during the secretory stage by decrease the expression of MMP20 in ameloblast and expression of MMP20 decrease in cells during early mineralization stage in both groups in different rate.
Keywords: Amoxicillin, Enamel, Immunostaining, MMP20, ameloblast
34. A comparative study of the effect of nanoparticles and antibiotics on the antimicrobial susceptibility of antibiotics for some bacteria isolated from wounds and burns infections.
Yusra A. Radeef1, Anmar Mahdi Kadhum AL-Maamori2
1,2Department of Biology, College of Science, Babylon University, Babylon, Iraq.
ABSTRACT: This study aim to investigate isolation and identification of potential bacteria present in burns and wounds infections, the total number of 100 pus types were taken from many patients who was existing in the hospital of Babylon province through period from November 2021 to February 2022; the positive culture were 80% of total isolates while the negative culture were 20% of total isolates. After we were done on them macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical test, the bacteria isolated from burn and wound swabs. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was done using disc diffusion method in conformity with McFarland standards. MDR of different types of antibiotics was exhibited from bacteria isolated in actual research. Statistical analysis using chi-square test The central objective of this research is to use different concentration of Zinc oxide nanoparticles to obtain the optimum concentration that is anti- bacterial. Male constituted (37.5%) and female were (62.5%), with different ages ranging from 5 to 55 years. The high percentage was in age less than ten years old, while the less percentage was in age between (50_60) years old, and were Gram negative bacteria were most common, the concentration of Zinc oxide nanoparticles including 100 μg/ml. and 150 μg/ml which effecting to growth of gram positive and gram negative by measuring diameter of inhibition zone on growth culture that artificial to Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria throughout measuring inhibition zone around the wells. We observed the diameter of inhibition zone increased in concentration (150) μg/ml more than concentration (100) μg/ml. The results of actual study showed women compared to males of positive growth and the ages. Multi Drug Resistance bacteria. Zinc oxide nanoparticles has important applications as it is an anti _bacterial and works as an effective dressing for burns and wounds.
Keywords: Gram positive Bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, Wounds, Burns, Antimicrobial sensitivity, Multi Drug Resistant, nanoparticles.
35. Evaluation of some Mechanical Properties of Room Temperature Maxillofacial Silicone after addition of Nano Barium Titanate
Aseel F. Kumail 1 and Thekra I. Hamad1
1 Department, College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Background: Because facial prostheses are used to replace a missing piece of the face, they must be made of a material that is comparable to the soft tissues and skin in the surrounding area. Investigations have revealed that the maxillofacial silicone elastomer is often used for this purpose due to its biocompatibility, ca-pacity to be easily colored by intrinsic or extrinsic coloration, and good elasticity. Aim of this study: The goal of this investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of addition of Barium titanate (BaTiO3) Nano fillers in different percentages on some mechanical properties of VST-50 room temperature vulcanized maxillofacial sil-icone. Methods: The Nano BaTiO3 was introduced to the VST-50 RTV maxillofacial silicone in percentages of 1% and 2% by weight, and the samples were tested for tensile strength (ISO 37: 2017), percentage of elon-gation (ISO 37: 2017), and tear strength (ISO 34-1: 2015). The BaTiO3 Nanofillers dispersion in VST-50 sil-icone elastomer investigated by FE-SEM and EDS. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The changing significance was tested using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: FE-SEM imaging was used to determine the dispersion of the nanoparticles inside the silicone matrix, which exhibited a well-dispersed with some agglomeration as the filler fraction rose, The incorporation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the polymer matrix is supported by the EDS test. When compared to the control group, the 1% and 2 % groups showed substantial increases in tensile strength, percentage of elongation and non-significant difference between 1% and 2% groups, and 2% more increase in tear strength than 1% groups. Conclusion: Reinforc-ing VST-50 maxillofacial silicone with 1 % and 2% percentages of Nano BaTiO3 improved several of the room temperature vulcanized silicone's mechanical qualities.
Keywords: Room Temperature Maxillofacial Silicone, Nano Barium Titanate, tumor
36. IFN-Gamma, IL-10, procalcitonin and CRP as predictors of dis-ease severity in COVID-19 patients
Alaa Hussain Hassan 1, Janan M Al-Akeedi 2, . thekra ahmed Hamada 3 , Suhair Shatti Saleh 4
1Medical Laboratory Techniques / Al-Farabi University College / Baghdad / Iraq
2Medical Laboratory Techniques / Al-Farabi University College / Baghdad / Iraq
3,4 Department of microbiology/college of medecin /Tikrit university
Abstract: Inflammatory reactions are important in the progression COVID19 and inflammatory cytokine storm leave COVID19 more severe. The goal of this study was to determine the influence and concentrations of procalcitonin, IL-10, IFN, and CRP in COVID19 infested per-sons. Recently diagnosed COVID-19 individuals were found to have a higher risk of developing COVID-19, with the highest mean levels of procalcitonin compared to healthy controls (88.18±4.62 vs. 24.51±3.28 pg/ml) (P:<0.05). The examine additionally confirmed that newly rec-ognized COVID-19 sufferers had appreciably better degrees of IL-10 in comparison to healthful controls (43.5±5.seventy four vs 27.6±4.23 pg/ml). The study decided that IFN-Gamma stages have been substantially expanded in newly inflamed COVID-19 sufferers as in comparison with wholesome controls (38.32 ± 5.forty three vs. 22.41 ± 4.31 pg/ml), (P: < 0.05). The research tested that the extent of CRP turned into multiplied substantially in sufferers with new contamination of COVID-19 in comparison with wholesome control (63.4±8.22 v.s.8.17±2.33 mg/dl) (P:<0.05). Within the first week of contamination, the researchers discovered a distinct link between pro-calcitonin, IL-10, IFN gamma, and CRP and COVID-19 disorder.
Keyword: COVID-19; procalcitonin; IL-10; IFN gamma; CRP
37. Evaluation of pollution with some heavy metals for soils and plants of agricultural Locations in Basrah province
Salwa J. Fakher 1 , Riyadh S. Bedeeh 2
1Soil Science and Water Resources ,College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8137-5784
2Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture , University of Sumer
corresponding Email: [email protected]
Abstract: To Evaluation the state of Pollution with heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb), ten Locations with different chemical and physical properties were selected from the agricultural Locations of Basrah province: 1/Al-Qurna, 2/Al-Madina, 3/Al-Dair, 4/Al-Haritha, and 5/Karmat Ali (University). ), 6/ Al-Tanuma, 7/ Abu Al-Khasib, 8/ Al-Siba, 9/ Al-Faw and 10/ Al-Zubayr (Al-Burjisiya station) and a site was chosen for comparison, where soil samples were collected from agricultural Locations close to the source of pollution, while plant samples were collected from near and far from the source Pollution and the necessary analyzes were Carried out for the study. The re-sults showed an increase in the concentration of total heavy metals in the soils of most of the study Locations and they were polluted compared to the comparison treatment, and the soils of most agricultural Locations exceeded the internationally permissible limits. The results indicated that the total average concentration of lead, nickel, copper, chromi-um and zinc in the Hartha area (the fourth site) was 615.88, 165.55, 390.40, 48.45, 465.83 mg kg-1 soil sequentially, which is higher compared to the average concentration in other agricultural sites, as well as the concentrations of heavy metals increased ( Pb , Ni , Cu , Cr , Zn ) in plants grown in locations close from the source of pollution, and the concen-trations of these elements decreased in plants far from the source of pollution. It is noted that the pollution factor (CF) values of Pb and Zn in all study Locations ranged from moderate contamination to very high contamination
Keywords: PLI , pollution Factor (CF), oil installations, soil pollution, plant pollution
38. Hemodynamic changes following injection of local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor agent in controlled hypertensive patients
Noor Alhuda Majid Muhsin 1, Saif Saadedeen Abdulrazaq 2 *
1 Affiliation 1; Master student, Department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 assistant Professor, Department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, College of Dentistry, University of Bagh-dad, Iraq.
Abstract: Background: Local anesthesia considered as the most drug used in dentistry, vasocon-strictors are added to its composition to maximize its advantages, but it considered as tourniquet and act on beta 1 and 2 receptors, this cause augmentation of heart rate and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of vasoconstrictors during simple tooth extrac-tion in controlled hypertensive patients by monitoring the changes in blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation; Methods: A prospective clinical study carried out in control group (normotensive patients n=60) and study group (hypertensive patients) (n=60). The following hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure [diastolic and systolic], heart rate and oxygen satura-tion) were monitored at four different time points (before infiltration of local anesthesia (R1), after 3 minutes of local anesthesia (R2), immediately after extraction (R3) and 25 minutes after local anesthesia infiltration (R4). One carpule of local anesthesia for each patient was provided in the form of lidocaine 2% with adrenaline as vasoconstrictor 1/100,000; Results: Mean heart rate increased from one to four beats per minute in all groups, but the increment was lesser in hy-pertensive group. The increased of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients during (R2,R3 and R4) was significantly lower than normotensive group (p<0.001). The diastolic blood pressure reading fell in hypertensive group more than normotensive group during (R2,R3 and R4), no changes in oxygen saturation were recorded between both groups; Conclusions: no ad-verse effect in well controlled hypertensive patients were seen during simple tooth extraction, one carpule of local anesthesia with 1\100,000 adrenaline not induce augmentation of blood pressure in hypertension patients included in this study. The changes in heart rate were within the safe limits.
Keywords: local anesthesia, adrenaline, vasoconstrictors, hypertensive patients, hemodynamic changes.
Ahed Raad Hameed1, Athmar DH. H. Al-Shohani1,*
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Phamacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad,10001,Iraq.
Abstract: Topical treatment of ocular diseases is mainly through the use of eye drops. One of the short outcomes of eye drops is the use of preservatives, particularly for chronic diseases such as glaucoma and dry eye syndrome. Preservatives are chemical compounds that must be incorporated into an eye drop to preserve sterility during storage and use. Their chronic use may cause side effects to the eye such as irritation, allergy, tear film instability, conjunctival inflammation, sub conjunctival fibrosis and corneal surface impairment. Ophthalmologists and formulation scientists are moving towards preservative free formulations. Strategies to manufacture preservative free formulation are either through changing container type of formulate or converting into the solid dosage form. Preservative free formulations were superior over traditional eye drops by minimizing side effects experienced by the patient.
Keywords: preservative free formulation, chemical substance, growth
40. The role of vitamin D3 in oligospermia in Iraqi patients
Wajeeh jabbar Dagher1, Shifaa J.Ibrahim2 , Ammar Mohamed Qasem3
1 Department of biochemistry/ College of medicine/ University of Baghdad/Iraq
2 Department of Biochemistry/ College of Medicine/ University of Baghdad/Iraq
3 Kamal AL-samurai Hospital Fertility center ,Infertility Treatment and IVF
Abstract: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (Vitamin D (25(OH)D; vit D), al-so called calciferol, it is one of the four fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) stored in body tissues. vitamin D is the only vitamin that can be synthesized by the human body in the skin when exposed to sunlight, namely the ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) other sources of vitamin D include dietary supplements and food .Vitamin D regulates hormone production and receptor expression in theca and granulosa cells of developing follicles, this in turn affects follicle recruitment and maturation .Vitamin D alters sperm motility and metabolism, and also impacts on the ability of sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction and consequently the ability to fertilize ovum .According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by a failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Aim of study: Is to study the level of vitamin D3, FSH,LH, Prolactin , Testosterone ,calcium and phosphorus in the blood of patients complaining of infertility, either due to decrease in sperm count or decrease in motility and viability of the sperm. The results compare with the same results of normal fertile subjects. Subject, materials and methods: The subject will include 90 patients suffering from infertility due to oligospermia . These patients will be collected from Kamal Al-samurai hospital and Fatima AL-zahraa for women . In the same times, 30 normal fertile persons have been taken for comparison with patient group. Each subjects of both groups has been undergone the following examination:-a- Microscopical examination of seminal fluid. b-Estimate the level of vitamin D3 in blood. c- Estimate the level of FSH,LH,PRL and Testosterone hormones. d-Estimate serum level of calcium and phosphorous. Results :The total number of study participants was 120. They were divided into two main groups: Case group included 90 patients suffering from infertility due to oligospermia which subdivided into mild, moderate, and severe groups including 30 patients in each one and control group includ-ed 30 fertile participants. Conclusion :in this study ,we found the Mean ± SD vitamin D level were signifi-cantly lower in patient compared with the control as well as Serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone sig-nificantly lower in patient group while Serum prolactin is significantly higher in patient group. we also found Serum calcium was significantly lower; while of serum phosphorus was significantly higher in case group than that in controls.
Keyword: Interleukin 17A , Interleukin 18 , ELISA, Active TB, Latent TB.
41. The effect of enzymatic tempering of wheat on the extraction rate and the quality of the resulting flour
Entisar Turky Attia1, and Alaa Aaid Obaid2
Department of Biology, College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq.
Abstract: Enzymes are widely used as flour aids to improve properties of flour, but their optimum use and application at tempering stage was limited. This method is an excellent tool to ensure a good distribution of the enzymes in the resulting flour, to control dosage during milling, and to obtain flour of specific characteristics according to their final use. Therefore, the effect of enzymatic tempering on flour yield and quality of the re-sulting flour was investigated in the present study, where different concentrations of cellulase enzyme were used at (24, 60, 96) units / 100 gm of wheat, and the concentration 60 units / 100 gm of wheat gave the best results , The results of the statistical analysis witnessed a significant increase in the extraction rate (Flour yield) , which amounted to 74.6% for the enzymatic conditioning, compared to the control treatment, which was 70%, and a significant decrease in the percentage of fibers with an increase in the concentration of the enzyme, so it reached 0.78% for the enzymatic conditioning compared with the control treatment, which was 1.44%., And an insignificant increase in the proportion of ash and protein and carbohydrates, and the degree of flour color was not affected by the increase in the concentration of the enzyme .
Keyword: Enzymatic tempering • extraction rate (Flour yield) • Flour quality •
42. Effect of bio-fertilizer and spraying of nano-fertilizer and gibber-ellin on the chemical traits of Aloe vera L.
Zahraa Hadi Musaibeh Al-Maamouri1 , Ibrahim Mordhi Radhi2
"1,2Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Al-Mussaib Technical College, 51001, Iraq.
Abstract: A factorial experiment with three replications was conducted according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to study the effect of bio fertilization at three levels (0, Azotobacter, Mycorrhizae) and spraying with nano fertilizer (Nano Iron) (0, 1500, 3000) mg L-1 and gibberellin GA3 (0, 150) (300) mg L-1 in the chemical traits of Aloe vera L.) in lathhouse of the Department of Plant Production Techniques / Al-Musayyib Technical College / Middle Euphrates University during the 2021-2022 agricultural season. Af-ter the experiment ended, the results were:The treatments of the addition of azotobacter and spraying with nano iron concentration of 3000 mg L and gibberellin concentration of 300 mg L-1 were significantly superior in all studied traits. It was also caused by the bi-interaction (Mycorrhizal + Nano iron 3000 mg L-1), (Mycorrhizal + gibberellin 300 mg L-1) and (Mycorrhizal iron 3000 mg L-1 + Gibberellin 300 mg L-1) and the triple interac-tion between the study factors (Mycorrhizalgia). + Nano iron 3000 mg L-1 + gibberellin 300 mg L-1) a signif-icant increase in most of the studied traits
Keyword: Rheumatoid arthritis, Tripartite motif-containing protein 72, Disease activity score 28.
43. Prevalence Study of Major Protozoa Diarrheal Agents Among Pa-tients in Babylon Province Using Microscopically and Molecular Methods
Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy 1 , Kawther H. Mhdei 2 and Mais Kadhim Oleiwi 3
"1 University of Babylon, College of Science for women, Biology Dept. Iraq
2 Al-Hilla University College, Medical laboratories techniques, Babylon. Hilla Iraq
3 Al-Furat al- awsat Technical Institute University, Iraq
Abstract: Direct Smear Method (Lugol's Iodine, Normal Saline (0.9 percent) for detection of G.lamblia and E.histolytica while using floatation methods; Ziehn–Neelsen method (Malachite green) for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. by using light microscope; 96positive sample from those sample were examined by “polymerase chain reaction (PCR)”. Diarrhea patientes at the Babylon maternity and children's hospital, the Babylon province's “specialized Marjan Hospital for Internal and Cardiac Diseases”, primary health care facili-ties, and private clinics are all included in this category of patients. The children's ages range from (31 and up). Infection with parasites that cause diarrhea47.3 percent (E.histolytica, G.lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp.) was found to be 26.4percent, 17.9percent, and 3.7percent, respectively, in the current investigation. They were analyzed using a direct smear approach to detect the parasites' trophozoites, cysts, and oocyst phases. By mi-croscopic examination, the rural area had the highest rate of infection at 67.2percent, compared to 32.9 percent in the metropolis. Males had the greatest infection rate of 51.5 percent, compared to 41.2 percent for females. The higher infection rate was observed at 76.1% in the “age group”(16-20), while the lower infection rate was documented at 22.8 percent in the “age group” (26-30). Significant differences in infection rates have been seen at the (P ≤ 0.05). In this study, 96 positive results in direct smear methods were employed to diagnose the ma-jor parasite diarrhea agent using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It had a “total infection rate” of 43.4 percent at the time (31.3 percent , 28.1 percent and 2.1 percent , respectively). According to the PCR technique, males had the highest rates of infection (36.7%), while females had the lowest rates of infection (30.6%). In compar-ison to the rate of infection in urban regions, which was 25.9%, it had the maximum infection rate on rural ar-eas (45.3%). In the current study, the maximum infection rates were found at (16-20years) age group (46.2%), while the lowest rates of infection were found in the (21-25years) age group (16.7%). In contrast to previous studies, the present research has shown that the prevalence of diarrhea-causing parasites in the province of Babylon is higher when detected by microscopic examination and PCR, and the rate of infection from urban to rural areas is high.
Key words : Microscopic inspection, PCR technique, E.histolytica, G.lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp.
44. Effect Of Summer Pruning, Fertilization And Growth Stimulator On The Quality Of Kamali Grapes And The Mineral Content Of Its Leaves
Thaer R. Awad1, Nazik H. Khalil2,*
1,2 Dept. of Hort. And Landscape- Coll. of Agric. Engin. Sci. – University of Baghdad, [email protected]
Abstract: The research was carried out in one of the grape orchards belonging to Dujail District / Salah Al-Din Governorate for the agricultural season 2021, to study the effect of the fertilization program, some summer pruning and foliar spraying with a growth stimulator (commercial organic compound named Stimo-leaf) in the quality of grapes of the Kamali variety and the content of its leaves from some mineral elements, the study factors were applied to vines of 10 years old, according to the design of the Nested-Factorial Experiment. The experiment included three factors: summer pruning with two levels, without pruning (P0) and Pruning (P1), fertilizing with recommended fertilizer (F0) and a suggested fertilization program according to the physi-ological stages of the vines (F1) and foliar spraying with a growth stimulator at concentrations of 0, 2 ml. L-1, 4 ml.L-1 and symbolized by S0, S1, and S2 in sequence. The results showed the significant effect of summer pruning and fertilization according to the proposed fertilization program in improving the quality of fruits and the degree of coloration, as it led to an increase in the percentage of total soluble solids, the percentage of total sugars, the percentage of sugars to acidity, and it reduced the percentage of acidity in Grape grains and an in-crease in the content of the fruit peel of anthocyanin and total phenols, as well as an increase in the content of the leaves from elements (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and boron) and an increase in the content of the trunk of carbohydrates.The treatment S2 also outperformed the above indicators, and the binary interac-tions ( F1P1, F1S2, P1S2) and the triple F1P1S2 gave the highest rates relative to the comparison treatments, except for the triple interaction F1P0S2 which gave the highest potassium content of leaves and the triple in-teraction F1P1S1 which gave the highest carbohydrate content of the trunk.
Keywords: Fertilization program , anthocyanin, total phenols, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium and Boron
45. Effect of adding two levels of dried Molokhia (Corchorus Olitorius L.) leaves to the diet on some physiological characteristics and bacterial numbers in the intestines of broilers
Abbas A. Hoshi 1, Jinan S. Al-Shamire 2
1Researcher, Assistant Chief Agricultural Engineers at the Ministry of Agriculture - Gen-eral Company for Agricultural Supplies. Iraq – Baghdad [email protected]
2College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Baghdad. Iraq [email protected]
Abstract: This study has tackled in the poultry field of (Abu Ghraib site) related to animal production Depart-ment/ College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences/ University of Baghdad for 42 days (from 15, Oct, 2021 to 26th, Nov, 2021). The study aims at investigating the effect of adding the powder of Corchorus olitorius dried leaves to diet for different periods on the productive performance of broilers. 315 broiler chicks are used of (Ross 308 breed) regardless of gender, of one day age and an initial weight of 40 gm. The chicks are divided into seven coefficients and three replicators for each coefficient; each replicator includes 15 chicks. The chicks starting from age 1-21 days are fed with a (starter) chicken feed consisting of 3006.5 kilo calories/ Kg. feed metabolized energy and 22% raw protein. Then the chicks are fed with a (finisher) chicken feed from 22-42 days age. The finisher consists of 3171.11 kilo calories/ Kg. of feed metabolized energy and 20.54 raw protein. Biochemical tests reveal no effect of the coefficients of adding powder of Corchorus olitorius L. dried leaves on the averages of Glucose and phosphorus in blood serum. An improvement is shown (P˂0.05) of T4 coeffi-cient covers albumin, globulin, cholesterol, and whole averages of protein. As for Glutathione all adding coef-ficients show improvements (P˂0.05) compared to control coefficient. A greater increase is shown in coeffi-cient T7 (5.47mg), whereas the lowest is (4.14mg/ml). The results indicated that treatments of adding dried Molokhia leaves powder led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus beneficial bac-teria compared to the control treatment, while a significant (P < 0.05) increase was observed in the numbers of pathogenic bacteria E-coli for the control treatment compared to addition treatments for all periods.
Keyword: chicken feed, dried leaves, molokhia, physiological traits, lactobacillus
46. A comparison with micro albuminuria indicates whether urine and serum kidney injury molecule-1 can predict the onset of early dia-betic nephropathy (DN).
Dalia M. Saleh1*, Manal K. Rasheed2 and Nabeel K. Alwandi3,
"1 University of Baghdad, College of Medicine 1, [email protected] . https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1858-0018
2 University of Baghdad, College of Medicine 2, [email protected]
3 Baqubah General Hospital 3, mailto:[email protected]
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most frequent consequence of DM and a significant contributor to chronic kidney disease, a multifactorial illness. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a sensitive and accurate indicator of kidney damage and a predictive indicator. Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to exam-ine serum and urine KIM-1 as a DN early marker. Patients and methods: The present study included a total of 150 participants, among whom 50 non-diabetic participants were chosen as controls. 100 diabetics Partici-pants were split into two groups based on their urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as participants with normoalbuminuria (T2DM patients without nephropathy) and microalbuminuria (T2DM patients with nephropathy). The blood glucose, HbA1c, s.urea , and creatinine levels in serum and urine were measured us-ing standard laboratory techniques, and serum and urine KIM-1 levels were measured by Elisa Essay. Results : There was a distinct variation in the mean serum and urine KIM-1 between the control and diabetics without microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). Serum KIM-1 correlated with ACR (P = 0.669) in diabetics with microalbumi-nuria. Urine KIM-1 was less correlated than serum KIM-1 (p = 0.257). A strong association between the two was found between ACR and serum KIM-1 in diabetics with microalbuminuria and a low correlation between ACR and urine KIM-1 in diabetics with microalbumin . Conclusion: According to the current investigation, diabetic groups with microalbuminuria had substantially elevated serum and urine levels of KIM-1 than the control groups. Additionally, there was a favorable correlation between serum KIM-1 and the length of diabe-tes. Larger multicentric trials are also needed to assess the efficacy of serum and urine KIM-1 as a DN early marker.
Keywords: Serum /Urine KIM-1; Dibetic nephropathy; Microalbumin; DM type-2
47. Effect of adding different levels of dill seeds to the diet on produc-tive traits and some carcass traits of broilers chickens
Walaa zayer Shnain1 , Hasanain N. Ezzat2
1 Department of Animal Production - College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract: This study was conducted in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production / College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad Abu Ghraib for the period from 10/15/2021 to 11/25/2021 with the aim of showing the effect of adding different levels of dill seeds to the diet on productive and carcass traits For broiler meat. In this study, 200 unsexed broiler chicks of breed (308 Ross) were used, one day age , with a starting weight of (42) g. The chicks were randomly distributed to 5 treatments, and each treatment included 4 replicates, 10 birds for each replicate.The birds were fed three diets: the starter diet, the growth diet and the final diet. The experiment treatments were T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, adding dill seeds at av-erage (0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2%), respectively. The results of the experiment indicated a significantly excelled(P < 0.05) for treatment T5. Compared with the T1 treatment, it did not differ significantly from the rest of the treatments, adding dill seeds T2, T3 and T4 in body weight, weight gain and feed consumed for broilers at 42 days, an improvement was observed in the food conversion ratio of treatment T5 compared to the rest of the treatments in the first week, and in the fourth week, the results indicated a significant improvement (0.01>P) in the feed conversion ratio of the addition treatments T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to treatment T1. It was found that there was a significant (P < 0.05) excelled in the carcass weight of the T5 treatment compared to the T4 treatment and it did not differ significantly with the T1, T2 and T3 treatments, and a significant (P < 0.05) in the relative weight of the gizzard for the T4 treatment compared to the T1 treatment, as well as the liver relative weight for the two treatments. T4 and T5 as compared to T1,Also, a significantly excelled (P<0.05) was ob-served in the relative weight of the thigh for treatment T1 and T4 compared to T5. When calculating the relative weight of the neck, it was noted that treatment T1 compared to treatment T5 When calculating the relative weight of the back, treatment T4 excelled on the rest of the treatments.We conclude from this study that adding 1.2% of dill seeds to the diet improved the productive traits of broilers.
Key words: dill seeds, broilers, productive performance, carcasses.
48. The Effect of Phenolic extract of Mint (Mentha spicata) in the Fer-tility of Male Laboratory Mice.
Ahmed Nassir Faisal 1, Ali Abdull sattar abdull jabar2, Zain alabdeen Almousswi3
1 National University of Science and Technology, Nasiriyah, Iraq
2 National University of Science and Technology, Nasiriyah, Iraq
Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of the phenolic extract of the Mentha spi-cata plant on the fertility of laboratory mice. Where the phenolic compounds were extracted using the Reflex condenser from the leaves of the Mentha spicata plant and it was chemically detected. In the current study,)Albino Mice of the musculus Mus type were used at an age ranging between (12-11) months. The group was randomly divided into three groups. The control group was injected with physiological solution (0.9% Nacl), the second group was injected with the phenolic extract of the Mentha spicata plant by (100 mg/kg) concentration, and the third group was injected by concentration (200 mg/kg) from the phenolic extract of the Mentha spicata .The phenols were dissolved in physiological solution (0.9% Nacl), and all individuals of these groups were injected through the peritoneal membrane I.P. at a rate of 0.5 ml per animal per day for a period of 30 days. The phenolic extract of Mentha spicata leaves caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the level Testosterone and Luteinizing hormone (ng/ml) in blood serum of the first and second treatment group when compared with control group. The study also indicate that there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the concentration of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in the third treatment group compared with its level in the control group, while there were no significant changes (P<0.05) for the second treatment group compared with the control group. The average concentration of sperms taken from the caudal epididymis did not change sig-nificantly (P<0.05) for both treatments when compared with the control group. While the percentage of motile sperm decreased significantly (P<0.05) as a result of treatment with the phenolic extract of Mentha spicata leaves, and this percentage is directly proportional to the increase in the doses used of the extract. Sperm vitali-ty compared to the control group, as for the percentage leading to abnormal sperms, the results showed a sig-nificant increase (P<0.05) in the average percentage of abnormal sperms in the caudal epididymis of the second treatment animals, when compared with the rates of the first and control groups, while there was no There were no significant changes (P<0.05) in the rate of the first treatment compared to the control. Histologically, the re-sults indicate that treatment with phenolic extract of Mentha spicata leaves caused simple histological changes, represented by a simple vacuole of the interstitial layer between the tubules, a slight congestion and partial de-tachment of the germ cells from the basement membrane with a thick fibrous capsule surrounding the epididy-mis tubes and congestion of blood vessels, while the seminal tubules and seminal lumen remained normal. Compared to the control group, which showed the seminiferous tubules, seminal cavity and germ layers nor-mally with normal spermatozoa stages.
Keywords: Phenolic extract, Mentha spicata , Fertility
Jawad F. H. Al-Musawi1,*
1 Thi-Qar Medical College of Thi-Qar University, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected], https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8896-0334
Abstract: We conducted an experimental investigation in which hyperglycemia was created in rats using Alloxan; we then employed a herbal drug that could reverse the hypoglycemic effects of insulin, which is to say, we used Alloxan to induce hyperglycemia in the rats. Results from a research conducted on 24 Black rats over a period of 28 days (split into four groups of six rats each on days 1, 7, 14, and 28) show that ALLOXAN can induce hyperglycemia with statistical significance (P0.0001). HERBAL DRUGS (Momordica Charantia L) have been shown to ef-fectively reduce hyperglycemia brought on by Alloxan, with results that are statistically signifi-cant (P0.0001) but not as strong as those produced by insulin. Momordica Charantia L for its insulin-like effects on blood sugar levels in the context of hyperglycemia produced by Alloxan. Through the use of "Black rats," we were able to successfully visualise a model for inducing hyperglycemia via intraperitoneal injection of ALLOXAN. The effectiveness of Momordica charantia L in bringing down hyperglycemia was then compared to that of Insulin. Comparing Momordica charantia L to insulin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in rats, the following re-sults were found: - On days 7, 14, 21, and 28, with a total of 6 animals (Black rats) in each group, the mean S.D. of the hypoglycemic effect of Momordica charantia L was (148.42 +/-3.65), (127.66 +/-2.520), (95.78 +/-1.18), and (86.54 +/3.55). To put it another way, the herbal remedy is clearly effective in lowering blood sugar levels in those who suffer from hypergly-cemia. The present findings highlight that Momordica charantia L is effective in treating type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats, and that it has the same effect on blood glucose levels as the pharma-ceutical insulin.
Key words; Alloxan, Hypoglycemia, Insulin, Momordica charantia L, Hyperglycemia,
50. Genotoxicity evaluation in workers occupationally exposed to the pollutants of Dhi- Qar oil refinery
Mariam Alaa Toama1,*
"1 National University of Science and Technology, Thi-Qar, Iraq.
ABSTRACT: Background: Workers are occupationally and environmentally exposed to diverse forms of xenobiotic as gases and vapors. Career publicity to those compounds can trade the prooxidants /oxidants and antioxidants equilibrium throughout oxidative toxic stress (OTS). Pollutants might also purpose genotoxicity by DNA oxidative. This work has conducted in AL-Nasiriya at the Thi-Qar Oil refinery in Thi-Qar province south of Iraq. Samples have been amassed from the refinery workers and Campus college students and work-force as control. A complete of 70 blood samples from the refinery people running within the asphalt, Labora-tory, and refining units, also samples from Campus students and staff as control have been collected. The 8- OHDG became measured using the ELISA technique. The serum 8-OHdG of refinery workers were notably higher than individuals of control subject (p< 0.001*). A higher level of the serum 8-OHdG was quantified in the blood samples of all exposed subjects. The signification feature that resulted in an enhanced genotoxic po-tential was the years of exposure to the oil refinery environment that led to an increase the 8-OHdG formation over the years.
Keywords: Genotoxicity ; workers occupationally ; pollutants ; Dhi- Qar ; oil refinery
51. Panoramic View among Other Radiographic Investigations for Dental Implant Surgery, Dentists’ Perspective
Sanaa Jamal Mahmood1, Amaal Alnuaimy2, Faaiz Alhamdani3
1Oral Medicine Department, College of Dentistry, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Asst. Lecturer, College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University
3 Clinical Sciences Department, College of Dentistry, Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Baghdad,Iraq ; [email protected]
* Corresponding: Faaiz Alhamdani, College of Dentistry, Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Al-Qadisiya, South St.Baghdad, Iraq ;[email protected]
Abstract: Objectives: To determine the factors that could influence the use of OPG in dental implant surgery from a dentist’s perspective. Methods: A google form questionnaire was circulated electronically as a google form to dentists of different dental specialties and practical backgrounds. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS Ver.25. Statistical significance has been set at P<0.05. Results: The vast majority of the participating dentists use OPG as a preoperative diagnostic tool in dental implants. Only 13 (15.1%) dentists do not use OPG in dental implant treatment. Chi-Square Test showed a statistically significant relationship (P=0.042) between the reason for OPG request and dentists’ qualifications. The overwhelming majority of PhD and Fellowship degrees holder dentists (71.4%) request the OPG to view the relationship between the implant site and the vital anatomical structures. Chi-Square Test showed a highly significant relationship (P=0.000) between the type of the additional radiographic investigation and the dental specialty. Surgeons, compared to general practitioners (43.8%) and other specialties (52.6%), appear to be favorably interested (91.4%) in CBCT as an additional diagnostic aid to OPG. Conclusions: Dentists agree on the preliminary diagnostic value of OPG in dental implant surgery. PhD and OMFS Fellowship holders seem to be more interested in the relationship between the dental implant position and jaw anatomical landmarks on the OPG. Oral surgeons appear to be more appreciative of the role of CBCT as an additional preoperative diagnostic tool.
Keywords: dental implant surgery, oral radiology, OPG, CBCT, periapical radiography
Noor luay Hussein1, Zainab Al-Bawi 2
1,2 Institute of Laser for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: The integrated concepts of biology, physics, fluid dynamics, chemistry, material science, also microelectronics provide the foundation of the relatively young area of microfluidics. A variety of materials may be processed into tiny chips with microscale channels also chambers. Regarding PMMA material also production methods, microfluidic biosensor platform technology also focuses on enhancing rhodamine B's fluorescence via adding carbon nanotubes, with additional benefits including restricted detection, high sensitivity, high stability, also repeatability., quick response analysis, low consumption of sample volume, high throughput, also ease of operation applications of these remarkable devices.
Keywords: microfluidics, CO2 laser ablation; Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope, PMMA, Carbon nanotubes, fluorescent.
53. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties of biosynthesized Silver nanoparticles using Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts against some pathogenic bacteria
Sally K. Abd. Alaameri1*, Huda S. A. Al-Hayanni1, Labeeb A. K. Al-Zubaidi2
1 Biology Department, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Environmental and Water Directorate/ Ministry of Science and Technology. Baghdad, Iraq.
*1Corresponding author:Sa[email protected] , Phone : (+964)7709386880
Abstract: Multidrug-resistant bacteria have contributed to a rise in morbidity and death from microbial infec-tions, making it more difficult to treat illnesses caused by resistant pathogenic bacteria. There is a growing in-terest in the use of nanoparticles as biomaterials around the globe. Nanoparticles might become a crucial feasi-ble therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections resistant to several drugs. Currently, they are recog-nized as feasible alternatives or additions to conventional antimicrobials. Nanotechnology focuses on develop-ing eco-friendly methods for producing nanoparticles. The current work aims to generate a quick, ecologically friendly approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles utilizing aqueous and alcohol sumac plant extracts. These silver nanoparticles appear to be synthesized and capped by sumac extract bioactive components. FTIR, XRD, SEM, AAS, EDX, AFM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to determine the nanoparticle structure, shape, and optical properties. Within 15 minutes, the AgNPs had formed. The aqueous and alcoholic sumac extracts resulted in silver nanoparticles with an average particle size of 43.82 nm and 39.55 nm, respectively. Against the multi-drug-resistant clinical isolates, silver nanoparticles from both extracts had good antibacterial activity (Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa). Also, these nanoparticles had an inhibitory effect on the productivity of the biofilm virulence factor. For this study with highly significant differences (P≤0.01).
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Rhus coriaria L., Sumac, antibacterial activity, antibiofilm activity; multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Amar Hussein Abd Ali 1, Nahla A. Al-Bakri 2,*
1,2 Department of Biology / College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al-Haitham) / University of Baghdad.;
Corresponding author: [email protected] .
Abstract: Amino acids are the basic building block for peptides and proteins. They are raw materials for the generation of some hormones, purines, pyrimidines and vitamins. Amino acids also provide the body with a source of energy through their carbon structures. The study analyzed the amino acid in the kidneys of the albi-no mice embryo at the age of 17 and 19 gestation days, using a high-performance liquid chromatography de-vice (HPLC). Samples were obtained after removing them from the embryo and placing them in an ice bath to prevent cell lysis and acid loss. The study found 18 amino acids in the kidneys of the albino mice embryo. They are Asparagine (Asn), Glutamine (Glu), Serine (Ser), Glycine (Gly), Threonine (Thr), Histidine (His), Cysteine (Cys), Alanine (Ala), Proline (Pro), Tryptophan (Tryp), Arginine (Arg), Tyrosine (Tyr), Valine (Val), Methionine (Met), Isoleucine (Ile), Leucine (Leu), Phenylalanine (Phe), and Lysine (Iys).
Keywords: Amino acid, Mus musculus, Embryo, Kidney.
55. The Effect of Mediterranean Diet (MD) Accompanying Zumba Ex-ercises in Reducing the Percentage of Cellulite for Women Aged (30-45) Years
Sura Obaid Al-Issawi1
1 College of Basic Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq
Corresponding author: Sura.Obaid @uomustansiriyah.edu.iq
Abstract: The research aimed to identify the effect of the Mediterranean diet and Zumba exercises on the per-centage of cellulite for women aged (30-45) years. Therefore, The researcher prepared the Mediterranean diet program and the Zumba exercises that fit the research sample’s capabilities. The study sample was represented by (20) female employees who had cellulite exclusively, where the Mediterranean diet programs were applied through the distribution of a weekly food program and the accompanying Zumba exercises. the above pro-gram was carried out on the research sample for 3 months (12 weeks) by two training units per week, which was graded from easy to difficult. After implementing the two programs and conducting post-tests, the re-searcher concluded the following conclusions: The Mediterranean diet had a positive effect in reducing the percentage of cellulite found in specific areas of the body (thigh, hip, and abdomen) because the values were significant. knowing that its components are available, which made it easy to apply. Besides, the use of Zumba exercises along with the Mediterranean diet helped reduce the accumulation of fat, water, and waste and gradu-ally disappear. The researcher recommends that the Mediterranean diet should be identified because its materi-als and nutrients depend on unsaturated fats in addition to their high nutritional value. Emphasis on the adop-tion of different diets for those with high weight to reduce weight. Moreover, the use of Zumba exercises and other physical exercises accompanying music in hospitals and rehabilitation centers because of their role in in-creasing the fun and happiness of patients and eliminating depression and stress.
Keywords: Mediterranean Diet, Zumba Exercises, Cellulite
Abeer Kadhim Jasim Al-Falahi1, Ahmed Kareem Alsadaawy2 and Rukaibaa Ali Chechan3*
1 Ministry of health and environment, Baghdad health directorate-Al-karkh, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Organic Agriculture Center, Plant Protection Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq
3 Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
* Correspondence: : [email protected]
Abstract: Present study confirmed the identity of two Iraqi mushroom by using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence ,the genomic DNA of two isolates were amplified using ITS1,ITS4 primers, the data analyzed through Basic Local Alignment Tool( BLAST) search was achieved using the National Center for Biotechnol-ogy information (NCBI) database,The result show that nucleotide sequence of two mushroom blasted against sequence from Gene Bank data base that pleurotus ostreatus and pleurotus eryngii matched 99% and 100% respectively. Second stage of current study was the comparison of different agro-waste including wheat straw(WS), corncob(CC) and sawdust(SD) supplemented with 25% wheat bran(W) and 2% calcium carbonate (CaCo3) on mycelium growth, yield and biological efficiency (BE) of local oyster mushroom which compari-son with Chinese strain pleurotus ostreatus121 and pleurotus eryngii 080. The highest growth average achieved by local P. ostretus on SD substrate 1.50 cm andp. eryngii recorded 1.18 cm. the substrate CC was the most suitable for yield of both mushroom local P. ostreatusand P. ostreatus121(485.40 and 418.50 g/bag respectively) while local P. eryngii recorded 470.40 in the same substrate. It is also found that WS substrate recorded the highest BE for each local isolates and Chinese strains.
Keywords: Iraqi strains, pleurotus spp., agricultural wastes, wild agricultural mushrooms
57. The Effect of Various Levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Production Of Local Red Onion (Allium Cepa L .)
Dilzar F. Saeed1 and Alwand T.R. Dizayee2
1Soil and Water Dep. , College of Agriculture , University of Salahaddin.
Abstract: Fertilization is one of efforts done by farmers to increase the production and quality of onions . The research aimed to find out the effect of different levels of Nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium fertilizers to the growth and production of onions .The research was conducted in Grdarash field the experimental farm of college of agriculture , university of Salahaddin .The research use used spilt – spilt design .The first factor was Nitrogen ( 0 , 40 , 80, 160 Kg .ha-1 ) .The second factor wasPhosphorus ( 0 , 80 , 160 Kg.ha-1 ) and the third factor was Potassium ( 0 , 50 , 100 Kg .ha-1 ) .the results indicated that there was high Significant inter-action between NPK and onion bulb yield . The treatment( K1 P2 N1) has the highest significant yield pro-duction ( 18 .36 Mg. ha-1 ) And the best interaction between the Nitrogen , Phosphorus and PotassiumFerti-lizers this treatment addition were ( K 50 , P 160 and N 40 Mg .ha-1 ) .K1 P1 was the best significant inter-action between Potassium and Phosphorus .K1 N1 was the best significant interaction between Potassium and Nitrogen.
Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Onion ,Bulb yield.
58. Combination effect of different levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Yield of Chickpea Plant (Cicera rietinum L.)
Yahya A.A Abd Sabri 1,*, Alwand T.R. Dizayee2
1 Dpt.of soil and water science, Coll. of Ag. Eng. Sci. Salahaddin –Hawler-Iraq, [email protected]
2 Dpt.of soil and water science, Coll. of Ag. Eng. Sci. Salahaddin –Hawler-Iraq, [email protected]
Abstract: This experiment was conducted at Grdarasha field of College of agricultural engineering Science, Salahaddin University in Erbil with Clay Loam texture class. During spring growing season of 2020, to study the effect of four levels of phosphorus TSP (0 , 20 , 40 , 60) Kg P. ha-1 ,Three level of K (0 , 15 , 30) Kg K. ha-1and Three level of N (0 , 15 , 30) Kg N. ha-1. Besides, there combination on yield components and nutri-ent balance of chickpea plant by using, split split block design with three factors (K, N and P), where 36 treat-ment with 3 replicates was used. The main results could be summarized as follow: The combination between potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus levels affected on the yield of chickpea plant was significant also the max-imum yield was recorded in treatment combination (K2N1P2) was (1.55 Mg ha-1). Whereas the lowest mean value (0.73 Mg ha-1) was recorded from treatment combination (K0N0P0).
Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, chemical and physical properties, chickpea yield
59. Response of Aleo vera plant to different concentrations of phos-phorous and terra-sorb complex and its effect on vegetative growth characteristics and its gel content
R. A. A. Al-asadi 1,*, Sajed A. Mohamed2
1,2 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Unit, Coll.of Agri. Eng. Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad for the fall season 2016. Aloe vera seedlings were selected with a high degree of homogeneity in terms of vegetative growth and number of leaves, and the plants were distributed as a factorial experiment according to the RCBD randomized complete block design, with three replications and an average of six plants in the experimental unit. Results revealed a significant differences in most of studied traits, showed the superiority of the N3P3 interference treatment by gave the highest values in number of leaves, leaf width and thickness, fresh weight of leaves and plant yield of dry matter (15.83 leaves. and 217.46 g. plant-1) respectively. As for the effect of spraying with amino acids, treatment N3 excelled in the characteristics of leaf thickness, fresh weight of leaves and plant yield of dry mat-ter, which amounted to 1.828 mm. leaf and 273.0 g. leaf and 157.23 g. leaf-1 in sequence. While the treatment of P3 spraying surpassed in the characteristic of leaf thickness and plant yield of dry matter, which amounted to 1.822 mm. leaf-1 and 191.61 g. plant-1. While the results did not show significant differences between the treatments of spraying with amino acids and phosphorous treatments in the trait of plant length and leaf width.
Keywords: Aloe vera, bio stimulant, amino acids, phosphorous
Sahar Hamdan Alani1, Luma Musa Ibrahim2, Hala A. Alwan3 and Modar Abdel-Abbas4
1 College of Dentistry, Al-Farthing University, Iraq
2 College of Dentistry, Al-Farthing University, Iraq
3 College of Dentistry, Al-Farthing University, Iraq
4 College of Dentistry, Al-Farthing University, Iraq
Abstract: Background: The mental foramen is a strategically important landmark during osteotomy proce-dures. Its location and the possibility that an anterior loop of the mental nerve may be present mesial to the mental foramen needs to be considered before implant surgery to avoid mental nerve injury. Material and method: This is a retrospective cross sectional study conducted using panoramic radiographic data of Iraqi normal healthy patients visiting dental teaching Hospital at Al Farahidi college of dentistry . The number of participants selected for this study is 40 was 20 male and 20 female. Results: A total of 45 were processed and analyzed during the periods of the current study out of these only 40 were considered to be sufficient for the inclusion and exclusion criteria 50 Bee Gees for five subjects where discarded because they were not matched with the inclusion and exclusion criteria‘s remaining 40 oh Bee Gees represents a total of 20 male and 20 fe-male subjects all the data were matched to get a better picture and comprehensive results.
Keywords: Mental Foramen, dental implant, mental foramen
Mohsen Kamel Mohammad Ali1, Jalal Hameed Hamza2 and Ahmed Shihab Ahmed3
"1Ministry of Trade, General Company for Grain Trade, Wasit Branch Branch [email protected]
2*University of Baghdad, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Department of Field Crops
3Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Researches Directory, Department of Rice Researches
*Corresponding author: M.K. Mohammad Ali [email protected]
Abstract: A laboratory experiment was carried out according to a completely randomized design with four repetitions on the seeds resulting from a field experiment applied for the two seasons 2020 and 2021, to find out the effect of the cultivars (Ambar 33, Yasamin, Dijlah, Ambar Al-Baraka and Furat 1) and the harvest dates (at physiological maturity and after 7 and 14, 21 and 28 days of physiological maturity) on the vigour of rice seeds. The results showed the superiority of the seeds of the cultivar Anbar Al-Baraka at first and final counting, dry weight of the seedling, seedling vigour index and electrical conductivity, and the superiority of the seeds of Dijla cultivar at accelerated aging test and cold test without significant difference with the Anbar Al-Baraka cultivar in both seasons. The harvest date exceeded 14 days after physiological maturity at all stud-ied traits in both seasons. Anbar Al-Baraka at the harvest 14 days after physiological maturity was superior at most studied traits. It can be concluded that the seeds of the cultivar Amber Al-Baraka showed the best per-formance at seed vigour, especially harvested after 14 days of physiological maturity.
Key words: accelerating ageing, cold test, Oryza sativa, first count, seedling vigour, physiological maturity
62. Molecular detection of equine infectious anaemia viruses using conventional PCR and primer design for virus gag-gene region in the middle Iraqi provinces
Ahmed Hamzah Mosa1, Naseir Mohammed Badawi2, Zaid Salah Hussein2 and Ahmed Jassim Mohammed3
1 Department of Internal and Preventive Veterinary Medicine. College of Veterinary Medicine. AL-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq. [email protected]
2 Department of Internal and Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
3 Al-Qasim Agriculture Division, Babylon Agriculture Directorate
Abstract: Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) is a viral infection that affects Equidae as a persistent infection. In-fected horses usually develop a systemic disease with mild clinical signs such as irregular fever, weight loss, anaemia, and weakness. The study was the first molecular record of the EIA viruses in horses in Iraq. In total, 72 blood samples (30 horses and 42 donkeys) were selected with a history and signs of anaemia. The study was conducted in the provinces of central Iraq (Babylon, Karbala, and Al-Dawinih provinces) from 2015 to 2017. Then, primer design and molecular identification of the gag gene of the EIA virus were performed. The results showed EIA virus infection rates in horses and donkeys in Iraq's middle regions was 16.66% and 0%, respectively. The DNA sequences of two positive EIA virus samples revealed that isolates have 271 nucleo-tides under accession numbers MN861108.1 and MN861109.1, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis re-vealed that Iraqi isolates were clustered in different clades and revealed 83.1–100% identity with EIAV world isolates in the NCBI. This study was first molecular record of EIA viruses in Iraq. The study indicated that the gag region was an important target for EIAV detection.
Key words: PCR, Gag, Gene, EIA, Iraq.
63. Some morphological structures and histological features of the gills of binni (Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi)
Khalid Hadi Kadhim1, Diyar Mohammad Hussein2, Shaima Khazaal Waad3
"1 Dep. of Anatomy and Histology / Coll. of Vet. Med./ Al Muthanna University/ Iraq
2 Dep. of Anatomy and Histology / Coll. of Vet. Med./ Al Muthanna University/ Iraq
3 Dep. of Anatomy and Histology / Coll. of Vet. Med./ Al Muthanna University/ Iraq
Abstract: This study's goal was to describe some morphological and histological aspects of the binni fish's gills. Fifteen adult male binni were pulled alive from the Al-Forat river, with age about (24 - 28) months, im-mediately after death. The gills of binni were situated on each side of the head beneath a gill cover; operculum and the gills were made of the finger-like long filaments that were joined to the cartilaginous gill bar. From each filament; numerous, fragile lamellae that resemble leaves protrude. These lamellae were made up of tiny capillaries that were covered in plain squamous epithelial cells. Between the fish's blood and the surrounding water, the epithelium acts as a barrier. The first, second, third, and fourth pairs of gill arches make up the gills, which were supported by the bone skeleton. Each arch carries a row of gill filaments on its convex side and two rows of gill rakers on its concave side. On the rostral concave border, the filaments in the two extremes of the gill were short, but the length of all the filaments was the same. The first gill arch's lateral rakers were long-er than the medial rakers, while the fourth gill arch's medial rakers were longer than the lateral rakers. The rak-ers, bony comb-like projections, filled the rostral region of the gill arches at the rostral concave interior side. There was interdigitation between the gill rakers of the neighboring gill arches. Each gill arch included the lat-eral gill rakers pointing dorsolaterally and medial gill rakers pointing dorsomedially. Filaments originate from the gill arches and were maintained by the cartilage on the caudal convex border of the primary lamellae, from which the secondary lamellae emerge. The simple squamous epithelium lined the secondary lamellae.
Key words: Binni, Gill, Morphology, Histology.
Nabaa Tahseen Kahdum1 and Fadhil Sami Zghair2
1Collage of Health and Medical Technology, Kufa Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Iraq
2Kufa technical institute, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Iraq
Abstract: Aspergillosis is a fungal disease caused by Aspergillus, a filamentous fungus that is saprophytic and can be found in the air. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is known to affect immunocompromised patients.80 sputum sample collect from cancer patient infected with pneumonia. This sample cultured on SDA for isolation and identification Aspergillus spp. and diagnosis by macroscopic and microscopic examination. The result show that Aspergillus represent 26 (86.7 %) and it the most mold causes pneumonia, A.fumigatus represent 12 (40 %) following by A.niger 8 (26.7%),A.terrus 4(13.3%) and A.flavus 2 (6.7%).Alternaria sp. 2(6.7%) and Penicillium sp. 2 (6.7%) also isolated . the most type of cancer that Aspergillus prevalence it is lung cancer (42.85 %), following by ovary cancer (21.4 %), and colon, breast, osteocarcinoma, urethra, larynx as (7.14 %). the most age stage isolate Aspergillus is (>50 years) as (50 %) and the less isolate is (21-30) as (7.14 %) . the positive isolation increased in long duration of cancer (64.3 %) in duration more than 12 month and negative isolation increased in short duration (1m-6m) (61.5%).
Keywords: Aspergillus sp., pneumonia, cancer
65. Assessment of the Salivary level of Sphingosine kinases-1 in perio-dontitis and its correlation with periodontal parameters
Athraa Awed Monsor1, Hadeel Mazin Akram2,*
1 Department of Periodontics, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Periodontics, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
ABSTRACT: One of the key molecules in the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate is SPHK-1, also known as Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SPHK-1). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid that acts as a signaling molecule and plays an important role in inflammatory and immunomodulatory responses. S1P has recently been identified as a mediator as well as a biomarker in inflammatory bone diseases such as osteo-porosis and inflammatory osteolysis based on the biological effects of S1P in osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells as well as immune cells. According to recent research, S1P may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an inflammatory bone destructive condition. This study aims to assess the salivary level of SPHK-1 in perio-dontitis and its correlation with periodontal parameters. The study sample consisted of 65 participants, both males, and females. It was divided into three groups: the first group, the Healthy Control group (15 Subjects), the second group, Periodontitis Stage II (25 Subjects), and the third group, Periodontitis Stage III (25 Sub-jects). Collection of whole unstimulated salivary samples from all participants was carried out, followed by an examination of clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level), and then radiographs confirmed the staging of periodontitis. Collected saliva was subjected to biomarker analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the SPHK-1 level. This study found there is an increase in the mean SPHK-1 level with increased severity of peri-odontitis with a significant difference. In addition, positive weak correlations were found between the salivary SPHK-1 and the clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, BOP, PPD, CAL). The study demonstrated that the sali-vary SPHK-1 level can be helpful to monitor periodontal disease progression.http://wsx5customurl.com
Keywords: Periodontitis, Saliva, Sphingosine -1 phosphate, Sphingosine kinase- 1.
Raghda Hatem Omran1,*, Zahra’a Abdul-Raheem Ahmed2
1 College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the serum level of interleukins 32 and 37 (IL-32 and IL-37) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. An ELISA was used to measure the levels of cytokines in the blood of 56 RA patients and 44 healthy volunteers who were enrolled in the study from November 2021 to March 2022. Serum levels of IL-32 and IL-37 in the RA patients were significantly higher compared to the control groups (IL32, p = 0.035; IL37, p = 0.011). In addition, cytokine concentration levels were higher in RA patients under therapy than in RA patients with a first diagnosis and without therapy, with significant differences in IL-37(141.389 ± 24.133 vs. 58.852 ± 7.806 ng/L), while there were no significant differences in IL-32 (93.740 ± 10.835 vs. 76.722 ± 9.321 ng/L). The results suggest that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may play an essential role in the progression of RA.
Keywords:Autoimmunity, IL-32, IL-37,Rheumatoid arthritis.
67. Estimation of Combining Ability of Growth and Yield and Its Components of Maize under Salicylic acid Concentrations
Hadeel S. Hamad1 , Zeyad A. Abdulhamed2
1 Department of Crops sci - College of Agriculture/ University Of Anbar, Ramadi. Iraq.
*Correspondence: mailto:[email protected].
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in the fields of Al-Hamidhyia research station - College of Agricul-ture / Anbar University to study the concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 200 and 400 mg L-1) and fifteen geno-types (5 lines + 10 hybrids) of maize using a randomized complete block design according to split plots ar-rangement at three replications, the main plots included spraying of salicylic acid concentrations, while the sub plots include maize genotypes (inbreds and hybrids) in order to produce hybrids (superior) by introducing a group ofinbreds and reciprocal hybrids of maize within half diallelreciprocalcrosses program. The results showed that Zm 6inbred was significantly superior and gave a highest general combining ability of grain yield (5.77 and 9.65) for both seasons respectively due to its superiority in the number of rows per ear and weight of 300 grains (0.27 and 1.48) respectively in the spring season, and early flowering in the autumn season. Also, the spraying of salicylic acid at a 400 mgL-1was significantly superior in the all studied traitsfor both seasons with non-significant difference withspraying of salicylic acid at a 200 mgL-1.The effect of the specific combin-ing ability (SCA) of the hybrids had a significant effect on the studied traits, the BK116×ABS6 hybrid had a highest specific effect on the early female flowering (-2.76), whereasthe Zm6×BK104 hybrid with control treatment had the highest specific effect on the weight of 300 grains and grain yield (13.84 and 50.12) respec-tively, in the spring season, while the BK104×Inb27 hybrid with spraying of salicylic acid at a 400 mgL-1had a highest effect of the specificcombiningability (72.11) in the autumn season.We recommend the spraying of salicylic acid at a 200 mg L-1 and using superior inbredsand hybrids in general and specific combining abilityin both seasons.
Keywords: Inbred line, hybrid, SA, SCA, GCA.
68. Role of Molecular Marker RAPD in Determining the Ge-netic Divergence between Hybrids and Inbreed Lines of Maize Using Full Diallel Cross
Zeyad A. Abdulhamed1*, Baraa M. Abdulkareem2, and Abdulsamad. H. Noaman1
1,3Department of Field Crops - College of Agriculture/ University Of Anbar, Anbar. Iraq
.2Accommodation Dep. University of Anbar, Iraq.
Abstract:A field experiments were conducted during spring and autumn seasons of 2021in the fields of a farmer on the right side of the Euphrates River – Ramadidistrict / the center of Anbar Governorate. Four inbreds of maize (Zm1, A119, Syn-33 and A105) were used and introduced in a full reciprocal program to produce 12 single hy-brids. The seeds of the parents and the resulting hybrids were planted according to randomized complete block de-sign (RCBD)at four replications, to estimate the heterosis. The reciprocal hybrid Syn-33 x A105 and the reverse hybrid Syn-33 x A105 was significantly superior and gave the highest means of grain yield (215.78, 203.10 g), grain weight (99.74 and 98.56 g), number of grains in the ear (17.4 and 16.7 grains row-1) and heterosis (116.01 and 103.32%) in grain yield respectively. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used, 15 primers were used. The highest genetic divergence was 0.69 between Zm1 and Syn-33 inbreds, while the highest genetic divergence between inbreds and hybrids was 0.75 between Zm1 inbred and A105 x A119hybrid.
Keywords: Primer, Heterosis, Genetic, Polymorphic, RCR.
69. The effect of the environment on the color variation of the shell of species Cochlicella barbara
Nibrass Lafta Al-Doori1, and Maysaloon Lafta Al-Doori2*
1,2 Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al-Haitham), University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the colors in which the shell of the snails is colored and the reasons for this multicolor. After choosing some areas of Baghdad, it was found that the species Cochlicella barbara appears in more than one color, we studied it for over than two years, it was found that this species have two sets of colors, alight –colored group that appears in winter and the darker colors that appears in summer. It was found from the study of the environmental conditions that the difference in temperature had the greatest effect on the appearance of the colors of this species.
Keywords: Gastropoda, Cochlicella barbara, color pattern, shell polymorphism.
70. Study Gene Expression of OXA-48and CTX-M-1 Genes Cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections in Baghdad hospitals
Sally S. Mohammed AL-jubouri1 , AbdulMuhsin Moslim Shami2
1, 2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for postgraduate studies, University of Baghdad/ Baghdad/ Iraq
*Correspondence: mailto: [email protected]
Abstract: Escherichia coli are a normal flora in the human. is pathogenic in the patient with immune system disorder is the leading cause of enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicemia and other medical infections E. coli is the most common cause of community and hospital acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is responsi-ble for >80% of all cases of UTI. This study samples were taken from Al-Karama Teaching Hospital and Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. This study aimed to determine the Minimum Inhibition concentra-tion (MIC) of Ceftazidim. As well as comparing the effect of antibiotic and without antibiotic on beta-lactam genes (OXA-48 –CTXM-1) resistance to Cephalosporin where the there is an overexpression of gene ex-pression in the antibiotic between (125-64) µg/ml. Bacteria produce beta-lactam enzymes that break down the beta-lactam ring in the antibiotic, which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. This mechanism is one of the mechanisms of resistance in bacteria. The presence of both genes increases the resistance of this species to Cephalosporin.The results of gene expression when treated with antibiotics for the OXA-48 gene in his sam-ple were 1.4 and the highest value was 14.5, as well as for the CTX-M-1 gene, where the results ranged be-tween the lowest value 1.3 and the highest value 7.3, when compared to the control samples, we notice an overexpression of gene. It was concluded that the resistance of E. coli to Ceftazidim was related to the genes blaOXA45 and CTXM-1 but the main role may be due to blaOXA45.
Keywords: Gene Expression, OXA-48 Gene, CTX-M-1 Gene, Cephalosporin, Escherichia coli
71. Study Gene Expression of blaOXA-48 andblaVIM-1Genes Car-bapenemsResistance in Klebsiella Pneumoniae isolated from uri-nary tract infections in Baghdad hospital's
Zeaid Hafez Aboud1, AbdulMuhsin M. Shami2 and Barra Jawad Kadhim3
1,2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies University of Baghdad, Baghdad,Iraq.
3Central public health Laboratory, Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: mailto: [email protected]
Abstract: Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as one of the most eight important causes of urinary tract infec-tion (UTI). With increasing resistance to antibiotics, especially carbapenems.About one hundred eight samples of urine were collected from inpatient and outpatients who attended they were collected at three Baghdad hospi-tals: two from Karkh (AL-Yarmouk hospital and Al-karamu hospital), and one from Rusafa (AL-Baghdad ed-ucational hospital). A minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was done using the Microtiter plate method and demonstrated different levels of resistance against meropenem antibiotics. Gene expression of blaOXA-48 and blaVIM-1 genes was performed when treated with meropenem antibiotic using the Real-time PCR tech-nique. The study showed that the highest value of gene expression in the blaOXA-48 gene was recorded for the resistant group was (1.8705), the lowest value of gene expression OXA-48 gene, before treatedwiththe mero-penem group was (1.0312), and the value of gene expression in the non-treated group was (0.97) control, while A slight increase in the value of gene expression for the blaVIM-1 gene was recorded for the meropenem treated group (1.8705), and the sensitive group had a gene expression value was (1.00), and the lowest value was in the gene expression of the meropenem treated group (1.0312), as well as an increase in the value of the expression.The genotype of the blaVIM-1gene for the meropenem treated group (1.828),is based on the 2-ΔCt method for both genes. When using the 2-ΔΔCt method, gene expression was slightly different in both genes. When relying on the 2-ΔΔCt method, the gene expression was slightly different in both genes. It was conclud-ed that coexistence of both blaVIM-1 and blaOXA-48 genes in four strains of K.pneumoniae, while indicating widespread VIM-1,and OXA-48 in Baghdad, Iraq.
Keywords: Klebsiella Pneumonia, blaOXA-48,and blaVIM-1, UTI infection
72. Relation between interferon gamma gene expression and its serum level with thyroid hormone status and Ferritin level in Iraqi sickle cell anemia patients
Bushra Jasim Mohammed1,*
1 Institute of genetic engineering and biotechnology, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Abstract: The hereditary hemoglobinopathy known as sickle cell disease is characterized by abnormal hemoglobin synthesis, hemolytic anemia, and intermittent obstruction of tiny blood arteries. The current investigation amid to study the relation between interferon gamma gene expression and its serum level with thyroid hormone status and Ferritin level in sickle cell anemia patients. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients suffering from SCA, as well as 50 healthy volunteers as a control group. The results of the relation of IFN-γ serum level with levels of T3, T4 and TSH, appeared positive relationship between IFN-γ serum and TSH levels, while found inverse association to T3 and T4 levels with high significance, also showed high IFN-γ gene expression(10.78 ±5.06 Fold) in patient group as compared with control (2.079 ±0.52 Fold) at significant difference, as well as the results found acquire strong positive association between IFN-γ serum level and IFN-γ mRNA expression in patient group compared with the control group. The current study concluded that there was inverse association among T3,T4 and IFN-γ serum with high significance, also high gene expression of IFN-γ, and acquire strong positive association between IFN-γ serum level and IFN-γ mRNA expression.
Keywords: IFN-γ, SCA, Ferritin, TSH, T3, T4
73. Effect of Artemisia vulgaris L. Aqueous Extract on Some Germina-tion Properties and Seedling Growth of Wheat
Raghad M. K. Al-Awsi1, and Dalia S. Hassan2
1,2Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad. Iraq.
Abstract: A laboratory experiment was carried out during winter season of 2021 in the Seed Technology La-boratory - College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad, to find out the allopathic ef-fects of aerobic and terrestrial aqueous extracts of artemisia on the seed germination and seedling growth of wheat. A factorial experiment according to a completely randomized design (CRD)at three replicates was used; the first factor includedtype of aqueous extract fortwo plant parts which were aerobic (stems and leaves) and terrestrial (rootand rhizomes), while the second factor included five concentrations for each aqueous extract of plant part (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). The results showed that there was significant effectof aqueous extract typeson the studied traits; the terrestrial aqueous extract gave the highest germination percentage (70.00%) and radicle dry weight (0.0487 g). Also, the concentration of 50% of artemisial aqueous extract was significantly superior and achieved the highest germination percentage (80.00%), shoot dry weight (0.0500 g), whereas the-concentration of 25% was significantly superior in the shoot length (7.47 cm) and radicle dry weight (0.0567 g), while the concentration of 75%was significantly superior in the radicle length (4.17 cm). The interaction be-tween two factors had significant effect on theradicle length and radicle dry weight only.
Keywords: Artemisia, weed, allopathic effects,phenolic compound.
74. Study the effect of the different doses from laser on Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria growth in vitro
Elaf Ahmed Mustafa1, Numan S. Dawood2*, khalil Ismail A. Mohammed3
1,2Department of physiology, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected]
3Clinical Communicable Diseases Unit, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq;
Abstract: Background:Laser is a novel physical therapy technique used to treat a variety of conditions, includ-ing wound healing, inhibition of bacterial growth, and postoperative wounds. High-Power pulsed alexandrite laser therapy is one of the most prevalent forms of laser therapy, which is a noninvasive method for treating a variety of pathological conditions, thereby enhancing functional capacities and quality of life. It is a modern medical and physiotherapeutic technology. Generally, the Alexandrite laser emits infrared light with a wave-length of 755 nm, allowing it to propagate and penetrate tissues. Objective: This study focused on the applica-tion of a high-power pulsed alexandrite laser in vitro to evaluation of the effect of a pulsed alexandrite laser on antibiotic-resistant bacteria utilizing varying exposure times, pulse durations, and laser fluencies to determine which dose is more effective on S. aureus bacteria. Method:The laser used in this study was the alexandrite laser which was considered as pulsed laser and had the following parameters: The wavelength was 755 nm, the beam diameter was (14 mm), the exposure times varied (30, 60, 90) seconds, the laser fluency (5, 10, 15 and 20 J.Cm-2). The study was carried out after the bacteria were diagnosed as being resistant to antibiotics, they were exposed to different doses of Alexandrite laser. Three samples of bacteria were exposed to laser beams for 30 seconds with a 5ms of pulse duration and with a laser fluency of 5J/cm2 and this process were repeated with laser fluencies of 10, 15, and 20. This procedure was repeated using exposure times of 60sec and 90sec. As well as, this process was repeated by expose with 30 sec, 60 sec and 90 sec exposure times, 10ms and 20ms pulse durations and with different laser fluencies 5, 10, 15 and 20J/cm2, separately.Results: A sig-nificant reduction (p = <0.0001) in the mean values of colony observed with the increase of laser fluency doses in comparison with control at the same pulse duration. As well as, a significant reduction (p = <0.0001) in the mean count of the colonies were observed with in comparison between two laser fluenceis at the same pulse duration. In conclusion the exposure times, pulse durations and laser fluencies of pulsed alexandrite laser shown effect on of mean count of the colonies of S aureus bacteria and determine effective dose.
Keywords: laser, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteria growth
75. Study of the effect of Diabetes Mellitus I on Bone Mineral Density of Upper and Lower Limbs by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
Zainab Sami Abdel Aziz1, Numan S. Dawood2*, Maan H. Al-khalisy3
1,2 Department of physiology, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq;
3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq;
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Mobile: 009647704376528
Abstract: Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) has been assessed using Dual-Energy X-Ray Ab-sorptiometry (DEXA). This procedure is considered to be of vital importance to assessing the general condi-tion of individuals with regard to their skeletal mineralization. BMD is measured according to the results of the DEXA examination of the vertebral column and pelvis. Although diabetes mellitus (DM)is known to af-fect BMD, the information regarding this relationship is not currently particularly clear. Objective: This study concentrates on the point that the assessment of BMD for the vertebral column is not sufficient to give a realistic and a correct picture about the mineralization of the remaining part of skeleton. Besides, this study elicited a generalized view about mineralization of the different parts of the body between both genders and between the left and right sides of the body. The effect of DM I on BMD was evaluated well in this research. Method: This study involved 165 patients complaining of bone pain (85 male and 80 female), about half of whom suffered from diabetes, involving both genders. Further, 90 apparently healthy volunteers had been studied and were considered to constitute the control group. All individuals (255) in this study were exposed to the study of their BMD via DEXA for all parts of the body. Results: The DEXA exam revealed highly statistically significant differences between the sides of the body in the same subject. In addition, there was significant differences in BMD between females and males, and highly statistically significant differences between the control and patient groups with DM I. Finally, this study offered strong evidence that the BMD of the vertebral column and pelvis did not give an accurate picture of mineralization in the different parts of the body for a given subject. In conclusion the DEXA scan for whole body and for each part separately show promising gresults as alternative parameters of the DEXA scan for spine or hip only for accurate di-agnosis. Our results indicate that the BMD of the left and right sides for women was less than for men in all cases (normal, osteoporosis, and DMI with osteoporosis) for the same sides, as well as between their upper and lower limbs. Patients with DMI revealed significant reductions in BMD in comparison with other sub-jects who were not diabetic, even if they had osteoporosis.
Keywords: DEXA scan, Osteoporosis, DMI, BMD
76. Distribution of Enterotoxogenic E. coli and EnteroinvasiveE. coli Among Children with Severe Diarrhea in AL najaf AL Ashraf / Iraq
Malak Kahtan Jamal1, Ahlam Kadhum Naeem2, and Hawraa I. Kadhim3
1.3Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al- Hadi University College, Baghdad-10011, Iraq
2Kufa University / Faculty of Education for Girls
*Correspondence :[email protected]
Abstract: Diarrhea is the second most important disease that cause death in children under 5 years old. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Enterotoxogenic E. coli (ETEC) associated with diarrhea among children less than 5 years. One hundred stool samples have been collected from children under 5 years old whom suffering from acute diarrhea. All samples are cultured on MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) for detection of Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEE). DNA extraction was carried out and PCR technique. was used for amplification of stp gene for detection of ETEC and ipaH gene for detection of EIEC. The results showed wide distribution of DEC (45%) among male and female where a high percentage of infection occurred among male (60%) in Compression with female (40%). The results of Agarose gel electrophoresis observed that 33% of isolates were possess ipaH which revealed that these isolates were belong to EIEC while 22% of isolates were possess stp gene which revealed that these isolates were belong to EHEC . In conclusion, diarrhea may associate with EIEC and EHEC in addition to EPEC.
Keywords: Enterotoxogenic E. coli ,Enteroinvasive E. coli , Children with Severe Diarrhea , polymerase chain reaction PCR
77. Inducing Resistance Against Seed Rot and Damping off Disease In-fecting Bell Pepper Using Some Antioxidants and its Reflection on Seedling Protection Under Greenhouse Conditions
Alaa R. Mousa1 and Aalaa K. Hassan2
1Ministry Of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Department plant protection department.
2Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Researchplant protection department.
*Correspondence: [email protected].
Abstract: Agreenhouse experiment was performed to assess the efficacy of some bio-control agents and glu-tathione to induce resistance in pepper plants against damping off disease caused by the fungus Rhi-zoctoniasolani. The fungus Trichodermaviridewas highly efficient to inhabit R.solani in growth medium when scored 1.33 highest antagonistic ability. The bacterium Azospirillum brasilensecould inhibit the patho-genic fungus on PDA growth medium by 100% at 10-5 concentration. Whereas, glutathione and Beltanol pesti-cide control scored 100% growth inhibition at 3000 and 2000 mg/Lm respectively. Greenhouse experiment showed T.viride, A. brasilense and glutathione (G) combination treatment decreased infectivity and disease severity up to 0.00 and 0. 00%, respectively, compared to 56.67 and 55.00% for R.solani only treatment. While, (G + R. solani ), (T. viride +R.solani) , (T. viride + G +R.solani) and (A. brasilense + G +R.solani) scored 3.33, 33.33, 10.00 and 10.00% infectivity and 1.67, 1.67. 6.67 and 8.33 % disease severity, respective-ly. Besides, the combination (T. viride+ A. brasilense + G) scored the highest plant height, dry and wet weights and total chlorophyll content which were 100.00 cm, 87.33 and 32.08 gm/plant and 60.00 SPAD unit, respectively.
Keywords: Seed Rot, Damping off Disease, Bell Pepper, Greenhouse Conditions
78. Studying the Genetic Parameters of Some Cultivars of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) and Evaluating Their Performance under Different Levels of Phosphorous
Ali H. Algraishi1, Faez F. Alogaidi2
1 Directorate of Agriculture in Wassit.
2Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad.
Abstract: A A field experiment was carried out during winter season of 2021-2022 in the research station - College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad in order to studying the genetic parameters of some cultivars of faba bean cultivars and evaluating their performance under different levels of phosphorus. Spilt plots arrangement according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) at three replications was used, the main plots included three levels of phosphorous fertilizer (80, 120 and 160 Kg ha-1) as well as the control treatment (without fertilizer), while the subplots included four faba bean cultivars (Local, Spanish, Dutch and New Zea-land).The results showed highly significant effects of phosphorous fertilizer levels on the moststudied traits, as the adding ofphosphorous fertilizerat a 160 Kg ha-1gave the highest means of number of pods per plant (17.78 pods plant-1) and seed yield (4.403 tons ha-1). Also, the results showed that the faba bean cultivars were significantly dif-ferent in most studied traits, as the Local cultivar achieved a highest mean of number of pods per plant (16.95pod plant-1), whereas the Dutch cultivar achieved a highest mean of number of seeds per pod (5.78seed pod-1), whereas the Spanish cultivar achieved a highest mean of weight of 100 seeds (86.95 g) and seed yield (5.295 ton ha-1). The interaction between studied factors had non-significant effect on the all studied traits except the number of pods per plant.The genetic variance recorded greater values than the environmental variance values in most of the studied traits, which indicates that the genetic variance was a large contribution to the phenotypic variance.
Keywords: Genetic indicators, phosphorous, Vicia faba L.,GCV, PCV.
79. Effects of general and specific combining ability and interaction between them for double crosses in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)
Ayman H. Hamdan1*, Hussein A. Al-Zubaae2
1,2Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar.
Abstract: Six inbred lines of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) were used in this study, which were introduced into a half-diallel crossing program to derive 15 single cross hybrids. Single cross hybrids were introduced into a double cross according to Rawlings and Cockerham method to derive 45 double cross hybrids and included them in a variety trial experiment, and estimation of the general and specific combining ability and gene action of the traits studied. The results showed highly significant differences for the mean squares of deviations for the double crosses in all the studied traits. Inbred lines 6, 4 and 1 showed the highest general combining ability with the desired direction on fruit diameter and plant yield, respectively. Also, the double cross hybrids of or-der S1x2, t(23)(..), t(2.)(6.) showed the highest effect of the specific combining ability to combine on plant yield. Therefore, the effects of the specific combining ability are more important than the effects of the general combining ability in most of the studied traits, including the plant yield,referring to the importance of the dom-inant genet action and the dominant × dominant in the inheritance of these traits.
Keywords: Genetic, squash, half-diallel, combining ability , single cross , Double cross, breeding plant, hybrids.
Basma Ahmed Ratib1, *, Asmaa Mohammed Saud2
1 Biotechnology Department‚ College of Science‚ University of Baghdad ‚ Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a loss of self-antigen tolerance and the development of high titers of serum autoantibodies, with a wide range of clinical man-ifestations and complex etiologies. Its etiology is influenced by a variety of genetic, hormonal, immunologic, and environmental factors. SLE affects around 90% of women of reproductive age. The study's aim is to eval-uate the serum levels of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in a sample of Iraqi SLE patients and its potential relation-ship with other clinical and laboratory parameters. The study included 100 female patients and 50 healthy fe-males with an age range of (16-65) years old and healthy individuals with an age range of (16-65) years old, and mean ages of (35.72 ±11.66 and 35.72 ±11.66) respectively. The current study is performed to estimate the serum levels of (TLR7, ANA, Urea, creatinine, and Vitamin D3) and a laboratory investigation for ESR, hemoglobin, and white blood cells by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)and automated Fujifilm. Serum levels of TLR7 were increased in the SLE patients compared to control, and a significant dif-ference has been observed (P≤0.01) among SLE patients as compared to control. Urea, creatinine, and ESR were significantly higher, at the same time the Vitamin D3, hemoglobin, and white blood cells were significant-ly lower (p< 0.01) among SLE patients as compared to control. On the other hand, there was no evidence for any correlation between TLR7 serum level and disease laboratory investigation.
Keywords: Anti-nuclear autoantibody, Haemoglobin, Interferon, SLE, Toll-Like Receptor-7, WBC.
81. Treatment of shallow and deep white spot lesions with three different mouth washes evaluated by laser fluorescence (an in vitro study)
Hussein Ali Abdul Hadi 1, Akram Faisal Alhuwaizi 2
"1Master student, Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Professor, Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
* Correspondence: Hussein ali abdo al_hadi, Department of Orthodontic, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Aim: the aim of this research is to find how three different types of mouthwashes effect on lesion depth of artificial white spot lesion. teeth with various depth of white spot lesion were immersed in either splat mouth wash, Biorepair mouth wash, Sensodyne mouth wash, artificial saliva (control)twice daily for one minute for 4 week and 8 weeks at 37°C. After this immersion procedure, lesion depth was measured using diagnodent pen score. A one-way analysis of variance, Dunnett T3 and Tukey's post hoc α = .05, were used to analyze the testing data. splat mouth wash enhance the WSL remineralization and made the lowest ΔF compared with other mouth washes in both shallow and deep enamel after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment. In the biorepair groups, after 4 weeks of treatment significant recovery was observed in shallow enamel. further improvement in shallow WSL after 8 weeks of treatment with biorepair mouthwash was observed in comparison to Sensodyne and control group. splat mouth wash is more effective than other mouth washes in remineralizing two depths of WSLs at different time points.
Keywords: DIAGNOdent pen, Shallow enamel, Deep enamel, white spot lesion.
Ayat Asaad Ali *, Alan Issa Saleem
Orthodontic Department at College of dentistry /University of Baghdad.
Abstract: Microleakage is caused by a number of factors, including polymerization shrinkage of the resin, thermal expansion differences between the enamel and the adhesive, and inadequate adherence. This study's goal is to assess the microleakage value under orthodontic brackets after three distinct enamel surface prepara-tions and compare the results to the traditional procedure. 54 intact upper premolars were randomly distributed into three groups. First group 18 teeth etched with 36% phosphoric acid Dentsply. Second group 18 teeth etched with %1.23 acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) incorporated phosphoric acid 25%APF 75%phosphoric acid Dentsply. Third group 18 teeth etched with Trans. bond TM Plus Self-Etching prime 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA. Then all groups bonded to stainless steel brack-ets RAZOR, IOS, USA according manufacturer’s instructions using light cured composite 3M Unitek/ Mon-rovia, USA. Then each subgroup furtherly divided to 3 subgroups 6 teeth each. The first subgroup thermocy-cled 500 cycle between 5 C and 55 UC in deionized water and tested after 24 hours of water storage. The sec-ond subgroup also thermocycled and tested after 2 month of water storage. Third subgroup subjected to cyclic acid attack for 2 months by an acidic solution pH=2.5. Microleakage was evaluated using a dye penetration technique. All samples are sectioned and evaluated under stereomicroscope. For statistical analysis, the Krus-kal-Wallis test was employed. P=0.05 was the level of significance. a significant difference was between etch-ing groups following a thermocycle and a twenty four - hour water storage, no significant difference after thermocycling and two months water storage and significant difference at the occlusal side and between overall means of compared etching groups. This study revealed that the highest microleakage values were in SEP self-etch prime group then EF 1.23% APF incorporated phosphoric acid group and lastly the ER 36% phosphoric acid group. The gingival side had more microleakage than the occlusal side. Adding around 20-25 percent of 1.23 percent of phosphoric acid for enamel preparation before orthodontic bonding increase microleakage val-ues but SEP remains the highest one.
Keywords: Microleakage, Self-etch prime, Acidulated phosphate fluoride, Stainless steel brackets
83. Effect of P-glycoprotein inhibitor (Carvedilol) on pharmacological and hematological effects of its substrate (methotrexate) to preg-nant and lactating rat mothers
Zaid Khalaf Shnawa1, Duraid Abdul Hadi Abass2
"1 Department of community health techniques, Baquba technical institute, Middle technical university.
2 Department of physiology and pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad university.
* Correspondence: Email: [email protected]
Abstract: Sixty albino rats (40 female rats and 20 males) were allocated into four dosing groups administered orally carvedilol (T1) 0.72mg/kg, methotrexate (T2) 0.36mg/kg, combined doses (T3) carvedilol + methotrex-ate and control group (Distilled water) for 2 month in male and 2 weeks in female rats before mating and after copulation and approval of pregnancy, dosing continued in female groups during pregnancy and lactation peri-ods. Half of the animal groups were euthanized one day before parturation to determine P-gp concentration in placenta and liver of pregnant mothers, while the other half left for parturation and lactation to study the effects of carvedilol (P-gp inhibitor) on methotrexate (P-gp substrate) when given alone and in combination on some pharmcological, hemotological and biochemical parameters in lactating mothers and pups at the end of lactation. The pharmacological results showed the highest significant antinociceptive responses both in early and late phase in T3 (CV+MTX) followed by T2 (MTX) group, while T1 (Cv) animal group showed nearly resamblant results as that of control group in both early and late phase of formalin test. The writhe test also recorded same result as formlin test indicating significantly higher analgesic effect in T3 followed by T2 in comparison T1 and control groups. The TNF alpha results supported the anti-inflammatory effect recording a significant decline mainly in T3 then T2 groups. The hematological results recorded significantly more reduc-tion in WBC levels in mother and their pups in comparison with T1 and control groups. The serum electrolyte levels (Na+, K+, Ca+2) recorded in all treated groups and pups a significant increase in potassium level in T1 and T2 mother rat groups. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) concentration measured in liver and placenta of euthen-ized pregnant mother before delivery recorded potent inhibition of P-gp in T1 & T3 groups which might altered pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of substrate by carvedilol that considered a potent P-gp inhibi-tor drugs, this might explain our results of increase in pharmacological effect of methotrexate and their side ef-fect on electrolyte concentration and hematology in combined group of CV+ MTX.
Key words: Carvedilol, Methotrexate, p-gp inhibitor, Anti-inflammatory, Hematology, Electrolyte.
84. Metal complexes of pyrazoline dithiocarbamate type ligands, syn-thesis, physio-chemical and liquid crystal studies
Nehaya A.AL-Satar1, Jumbad H. Tomma2,*, Hassan. A. Hassan3,*
"1 Department of Chemistry. College of Education for Pure Science Ibn -Al-Haitham, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Chemistry. College of Education for Pure Science Ibn -Al-Haitham, University of Baghdad, Iraq
3 Department of Chemistry. College of Education for Pure Science Ibn -Al-Haitham, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: In this study metal complexes of thiocarbamat ligand derived from pyrazoleine were synthesized by two steps. In the first step pyrazoline was synthesized from chalcone, in the second step the preligand (pyrazo-line) was reacted with CS2 and metal salt in 1:2:1mole ratio in a one pot reaction to give metal complexes. All compounds were characterized by physio-chemical techniqs, which revealed a bidentate behavior of the thio-carbamat and an tetrahedral geometry around metal centers except chromium ion which shows octahedral shap. The liquid crystalline properties of the synthesized compounds were studied by hot stage microscopes. The compound [II] exhibited Nematic mesophase, while the complexes showed different crystalline properteis
Keywords: Pyrazoline, Dithiocarbamat, Complexes, polar group, Liquid crystal.
Rifaat M. Rifaat* and Mohammed I. Nader
"Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract: Our investigation aim was to ascertain how the Fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1) gene affected breast cancer patients and how it affected the molecular type of the disease (Luminal A, Luminal B, Triple negative, Enrich Her2).By collecting the blood samples from sixty patients with Breast cancer from many hospitals in Baghdad/Iraq between the periods (October 2021 to August 2022) and collecting forty volunteers heaths as control.The volunteer's blood samples were collected and tested with Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) to confirm absent breast cancer. The blood and control samples from these patients were collected, the RNA was extracted, and molecular methods using PCR and primers that specifically target the FSCN1 gene were used. The results showed that genes found in all patient samples have overexpression compared to healthy volunteers, and we also discovered differences in expression between the molecular types of breast cancer. We discovered that the Triple negative breast cancer is more affected than Luminal A, Luminal B, and Enrich Her2.
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Molecular classification breast cancer, Fascin Actin Bundling protein 1 genes.
86. Nesfatin-1 is a biomarker that plays a role in the inflammatory process of coronary artery diseases in Iraqi patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Mohammed S. Mahmud* and Lamia S. Ashoor
"Biotechnology Department‚ College of Science‚ University of Baghdad ‚ Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Amis: NAFLD is considered to be the most common cause of liver conditions worldwide, also it is major reason that leads the coronary artery diseases, limiting blood flow to the heart. Therefore, This study aimed to evaluate the serum level of Nesfatin-1 and its ability to indicate the prognosis of CAD in patients with NAFLD. Material & Methods: one-hundred eighty Individuals were enrolled in the study including both genders, blood were collected from each Individuals and sent to the laboratory for biochemical tests. Findings: Data from the current study showed a significant increase in Nesfatin-1 in CAD group, and a significant decrease in Nesfatin-1 in NAFLD group compared to the control group. In addition, also a significant increase in both cardiac parameters and AST, in CAD group compared to NAFLD group and control group. Conclusion: Patients with coronary artery disease have higher Nesfatin-1 Concentration, due to Nesfatin-1 having anti-inflammatory properties that raise the level of Nesfatin-1. In addition, Data from the current study showed a significant positive correlation between Nesfatin-1 and (ALT and AST) in NAFLD patients, however further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.
Keywords: Coronary Artery Disease, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nesfatin-1, Troponin-I
Ahmed Nasser Ibraheem AL-saqabi and Ismail Hussein Aziz*
"Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for postgraduate studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Breast carcinoma is the most prevalent cancer-related cause of death in women, and metastasis is the main factor in morbidity. The total number of new cases of cancer in Iraq during the year 2019 was 35,864. For the rapid recognition and differentiation between breast cancer (BC) stages for treatment choice improvement, new non-invasive prognostic biomarkers are needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression and involved in many cellular processes, including metastasis. Circulating miRNAs (detect in the blood) show considerable potential as biomarkers for helping diagnosis or tracking treatment efficacy. Materials and Methods, total RNA was extracted from serum from (n=50) patients and (n=26) healthy control to measure the MicroRNA 195 expression by using SYBR green-based real-time RT-PCR technology. Result, the expression levels of miR-195 in breast cancer patients’ serum were greatly increased (up-regulated) when compared with those in the normal adjacent serum. BC group showed a higher significantly miR-195 expression (upregulation) when compared with those in the control group. While the highest expression of miR-195 was recorded in stage II.
Keywords: Breast Cancer, MicroRNA, miR-195, Stage, Iraq
88. Impact of Shore A hardness and Surface roughness of Room Temperature Maxillofacial Silicone after addition of Nano Barium Titanate
Aseel F. Kumail 1 , Thekra I. Hamad 1
"1 Department, College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: Background: In order to achieve patient acceptability, maxillofacial prosthetic materials should have desirable and ideal physical, cosmetic, and biological features that can be maintained for a long time. The mechanical qualities of the prosthetic material, as well as color degradation, are the most typical reasons for re-making maxillofacial prostheses.Aim of this study: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of addition of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) Nano fillers in different concentrations on surface hardness and surface roughness of VST-50 room temperature vulcanized maxillofacial silicone. Results: In the FTIR, there was no interac-tion between Nano-BaTiO3 and VST-50 silicone. After adding BaTiO3, an AFM image revealed the surface topography or morphology of the silicone surfaces of specimens, as well as an increase in the roughness of the VST-50 silicone elastomer. When compared to the control group, the 1% more hardness and less roughness than 2 % groups. Conclusions: VST-50 maxillofacial silicone was reinforced with 1% and 2% Nano BaTiO3 concentrations, which improved numerous mechanical properties of the room temperature vulcanized silicone.
Keywords: Silicone, Nano Barium Titanate, solar radiation
Marwa hussein abd1, Rasha H. Jehad 2
"1 Master Student, Department of Restorative and Aesthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Bagh-dad
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Restorative and Aesthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.
Abstract: The aim of this study is evaluate the advantages of employing nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, par-ticularly for preventive, treatment applications. Only electronic published papers were searched within this re-view. Sources: “PubMed” website was the only source used to search for data. 92 most relevant papers to the topic were selected, especially the original articles and review papers, from 1990 till the 1st of april 2022. The morphology of nano-hydroxyapatite, as well as the structure of its crystals, are close to that of dental enamel. As a result, hydroxyapatite can biomimetically replace the natural enamel mineral element.
Keywords: remineralization of enamel, nanotechnology, nanohydroxyapatite, hypersensitivity.
90. The effect of vitamin D deficiency on the cellular immunity of pa-tients in the early-stage of COVID-19 disease
Ali Sadeg, Abbas Arrak
College of Science, Mustansiriyah university, Biology department
Abstract: COVID-19 is a disease with a wide range of symptoms and severity due to the ability of SARS-COV-2 to infect many kinds of tissues and organs in the patient's body. The disease begins commonly with symptoms of respiratory tract infection that may be mild and limited or progress to severe infection with fatal consequences. The vitamins play essential roles in our biology including supporting immunity. Vitamin D deficiency became a public problem and its effect as an immunomodulator in many viral infections was approved. This study investigated the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the cellular immunity, especially lymphocytes, in COVID-19 patients when the disease is in its early stages. Tests for the complete blood count, lymphocyte proliferation assay in response to non-specific mitogen, and immunoglobulins levels were done. The study revealed no sig-nificant effect of vitamin D deficiency on the T-lymphocytes activation at the early stage of the infection. Vitamin D deficient patients have lower immunoglobulin levels, necessitat-ing the need for vaccination against COVID-19 infection.
Keywords: COVID-19, lymphocyte proliferation, mitotic index, vitamin D
91. The effect of COVID-19 infection on the white blood cells count and lymphocyte proliferation activity at the early stage of the disease
Ali Sadeg, Abbas Arrak
College of Science, Mustansiriyah university, Biology department
Abstract: Since the appearance of COVID-19 in the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and its prevalence in many countries , the symptoms of this disease extended from respiratory problems to a wide range of symptoms associated with the invasion of the virus to many organs and tissues in the body of patients. The white blood cells, particu-larly T lymphocytes, are the main effectors in defense against viral infections, this study performed to investigate the response of white blood cells to the infection of SARS-COV-2 at the early stage of the disease. T cells decreased in number in the circulation but this de-crease did not associste with an impairment of their activity. Moreover, stimulation of vi-rus infected T cells with non-specific mitogen revealed increased cell proliferation. This study concluded that T lymphocytes are highly activated during SARS-COV-2 infection, despite lymphopenia, at least at the early stages of the disease.
Keywords: COVID-19, lymphocyte proliferation, mitotic index
92. Effect of Baker Yeast crude Killer Toxin on some Pathogenic Microorganisms
Aows Habeb Al-Obaydi 1 , Nibras Nazar Mahmood 2 ,Baydaa Alwan,3
"Microbiology Department, College of Sciences, University of Al-Mustansiriyah, Iraq.
Corresponding author E-mail: Aows [email protected] .
Abstract: Many microorganisms, including yeasts, produce protein substances that are toxic to other microorganisms in the competitive communities in which they live. Bread yeast is one of these unicellular microorganisms that produce these inhibitory sub-stances. This study's objective is to look at the effects of killer toxins produced by bread yeast on test bacteria and fungi. According to the findings, the inhibitory activity increased with increasing the concentration of the supernatant and it differed in the extent of its ef-fect according to the type of bacteria and E.coli isolate was the most sensitive to the yeast killer toxin. The ideal conditions for producing killer toxins were to be yeast cultivation in GYEPB , PH at 5.5, incubation at 30 c for 24 hours, and ventilation.
Keywords: Baker yeast, Killer toxin, Antimicrobial activity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Op-timum condition.
93. Effect of purified killer toxin that extracted from Saccharomy-ces cerevisiae on some pathological microorganisms cause uri-nary tract infections
Aows Habeb Al-Obaydi 1 , Nibras Nazar Mahmood 2 ,Baydaa Alwan,3
"Microbiology Department, College of Sciences, University of Al-Mustansiriyah, Iraq.
Abstract: Ecological killer yeasts have had few studies compared with laboratory killer yeasts. The killer yeasts are known for excreting killer toxins that kill susceptible mi-croorganisms, such as killer toxin excreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The current study aims to extract and purify the Killer toxin of S.cerevisiae as well as study their inhibitory activity against a number of microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection. The sensitivity of the isolates was studied by bacterial exposure to a number of antibiotics after being diagnosed by cultural and biochemical methods, as well as by using the Vitek2 sys-tem to confirm the diagnosis of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the most re-sistant isolates were selected in subsequent experiments. Purification steps included the use of (NH4)2SO4 78-70% saturated solution and Sephacryl G-150, giving one peak that was collected to give inhibition zones of 31, 28, 8.5, 85, 12, 24 mm diameter for E.coli, P.mirabilis, K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus, and C.albicans, respectively, with a 771.77% yield from the total protein 0.090 mg\ml of yeast crude extract. The well diffusion method was used to investigate the inhibitory activity of the purified toxin. The results showed that the inhibitory activity of purified toxin was increased after each purification step, and differed in its effect according to the type of microorganisms, and that the isolate of E. coli was the most sensitive in all experiments suffix.
Keywords: Killer toxins, Yeasts, Thin layer chromatography, Purification, Antimicrobial activity.
94. Addition of acai fruits extract to Tris extender and its effect on some parameters of ram semen preserved at cooling.
Hasan Fadel Radi 1, Husam Jasim Hussien Banana 2
1 Directorate of Babylon agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: This study was carried out in order to know the effect of adding aqueous extract of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius) to the semen extender of Awassi rams on Bi-ochemical parameters of seminal plasma after storage at cooling. This study was carried out in the animal field and laboratories of the Department of Animal Production / College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad in the period from No-vember 15, 2021 until April 25, 2022. Three local Awassi rams were used in this experi-ment, their ages were between 2.5 - 3 years, and weighed between 50-58 kg, and semen was collected from them using an artificial vagina to obtain one ejaculate from each Ram weekly. the samples were divided using Tris extender, as follow :1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mg Acai extract / 1 ml Tris in addition to the control group.Measurements of AST, ALT and MDA concentrations were performed in the seminal plasma. The results of the current study showed that had no significant effect on the concentration of MDA, AST and ALT in seminal plasma for the two periods ( 0 and 72 hours) of preservation for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4, although the concentration of ALT enzyme and the concentration of MDA in the seminal plasma of T3 treatment were mathematically lower than the rest of the treatments in the two periods (0 and 72 hours), while there was an arithmetic decrease in the concentration of AST enzyme for treatment T4 over the rest of the treatments in the pe-riod (0 hours) and treatment T1 over the rest of the treatments after (72 hours) of preserva-tion
Keywords: Acai fruit extract, semen, ram, preservation, 5°C.
95. Effect of feeding dilution with date kernels treated with different methods on some productive traits of broilers.
Zahra'a Razzaq Hussain1, Muhammad Jodi Shahid1 and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi2
1 Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture and Marshes, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq.
2 Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
Abstract: This experiment was conducted at the poultry field, Agricultural Research and Experiments Station, College of Agriculture and the Marshes, Thi Qar University, from 11/1/2021 to 12/12/2021, to determine the effect of diluting the feed with date kernels treated in different ways on some productive traits of broilers. A total of 270, one day, 40 gm chicks of Rose-308 were used. Chicks were randomly distributed to the five ex-perimental treatments with three replicates (18 birds for each replicate), the diets were provided from the begin-ning of the second week until the end of the sixth week. The treatments were as follows: T1: Standard control diet (without dilution); T2: control diet diluted by 20% regular date seed pods for 7-42 days; T3: basal diet di-luted with 20% date kernels, cooked for 7-42 days; T4: basal diet diluted with 20% vinegar-treated seed for 7-42 days; T5: basal diet diluted by 20% seed germinated for 7-42 days. The results indicated a significant im-provement when diluting the feed with date kernel powder compared to the control treatment in all the studied productive traits, the dilution of feed with cultivar date kernel powder gave the best results in a significant way compared to the other treatments.
Keywords: feeding dilution, date kernels, productive traits, broilers.
96. Evaluation the Effect of the Formula Containing Partial Purified of Protease Produced From Aspergillus niger
Hiba T. Rasheed
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Wasit, Wasit Iraq
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0190-803x
Abstract: Aspergillus niger protease has attracted the attention of experts of environmental biotechnology since fungi can grow on low-cost substrates and secrete huge quantities of the enzyme into the culture medium. In this study, the samples of Aspergillus niger were collected from bread and onion, and then identified and screened for protease production using of skim milk agar. The production of media have followed components in gm/100 ml –casein 1g; yeast extract 0.6 g; urea 0.6g ; NH4H2PO4 0.6g; (NH4)2SO4 0.6g; NH4Cl 0.6g; DDW 100 ml; glucose 1gm; and pH 8.5 for protease production , the produced protease in crud extract was partial purified with solid (NH4)2SO4 was added to it by continuous mixing on ice bag (80% saturation) and the protease activity was 640 AU/ml with specific activity of 1280 AU/mg. The formula contained the partial purified protease was prepared, the protease produced from A. niger applied in formula was investigated by using skim milk agar ,wells contains the protease-containing formula has shown a significant clear zone and this ensure the activity of this formula.
Keywords: Protease ; Skim milk agar; Iraq.
Ghufran K. Ibadi 1, Ali A. Taha2, and Selma M. H. Al-Jawad3*
1Biomedical Engineering, Department, University of Technology, Iraq.
2Biotechnology department, School of Applied Sciences, University of Technology- Iraq.
3Applied physics department, School of Applied Sciences, University of Technology- Iraq.
*Corresponding author: Selma M.H. AL-Jawad
ORCID for Corresponding Author: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0599-7789
Abstract: Background: Chitosan is a promising polymeric that have received a lot of attention recently. Chitosan nanoparticles have wide applications as a nanocarrier for different organic and inorganic substances. Methods: In the present study, copper (CuNPs), chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and Cu/CS nanocomposite (Cu/CNC) had been prepared and characterized. All prepared nanoparticles were inspected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM ), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), UV/VIS spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Finally, antimicrobial activity of CuNPs , CNPs and Cu/CNC was tested by disc diffusion assay at different concentrations (0.5-2 mg/ml) against Candida albicans , Klebsiella. pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus mirabilis , Cryptococcus sp. , Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter sp. Results :The results showed an absorbance peak at 550 nm due to presence of Cu/CNC. From FTIR spectrum, found peak at 686.66 cm-1 that refers to the copper successfully binding with chitosan. Furthermore, the particle size average of Cu/CNC was 36.34 - 48.27 nm. EDS analysis of Cu/CNC showed peaks of Cu and nitrogen that refers to chitosan. Conclusions: In this study showed Cu/CNC have highest growth inhibition zone at concentration 2 mg/ml against C.albicans, P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with the diameters (9.75±0.35, 15±1.41, 15.5±0.70) mm, respectively.
Key words: Copper nanoparticles, Chitosan nanoparticles, nanocomposite, XRD, FE_SEM Antimicrobial activity.
98. Genotyping of rs228666 SNP of the human gene ACE2 in mild, moderate and sever Covid-19 patients.
Amer Mohammed Kradi 1, Abdul Hussein Moyet AlFaisal2, Ahmed Mohammed Turki3
"1 Health Ministry, Anbar Hospital-Anbar Health department, Iraq.
2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad-Baghdad, Iraq.
3 Anbar University-College of Science, Anbar, Iraq
Abstract: The ACE2-converting enzyme has been identified as the specific receptor for Corona virus, but the effect of the ACE2 gene polymorphism is still unknown, so the expression of human ACE2 independently may affect the susceptibility to infection with Covid-19. Corona virus is an infectious and pandemic disease caused by it. To evaluate the association between the ACE2 gene polymorphism and the severity of Covid-19 infection, we used PCR polymerase reaction and polymorphism methods to examine 80 patients classified into severe infection based on symptoms and 80 control factors.. Results demonstrated statistical significance in this high-risk group and the function of rs228666 SNP in the risk of infection with the independent ACE2 gene rs228666. Individuals who have the variation A allele may be more vulnerable to infection than those who carry G in a condition with the GA genotype when compared to other genotypes GG, GA, while the AA genotype was not significant. Corona virus susceptibility and disease severity were related to inflammation and genetic polymorphism, while there was no clear evidence linking this rs228666 SNP to the severity of Covid-19 infection. At the 0.01 % probability level, the prediction of the GG genotype for control was not significant. In the case of mild infections, the ACE2 rs228666 SNP genotype was found to be a protective factor for infection with Covid-19 illness in Iraqi patients. Furthermore, patients with this GA genotype are more likely to develop Covid-19 illness than the other genotypes, although the AA genotype had no significant effect on this disease. Individuals with the A allele are also more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than those with the G allele, according to the findings. The GG genotype of the ACE2 rs228666 SNP was substantially greater at the 0.01 % probability level in the medium cases compared to the control group, showing that the GG genotype of the ACE2 rs228666 SNP is a protective factor against the incidence of infection. With Covid-19 in Iraqi patients, however the values of the AA genotype are not significant, implying that an individual who carries the A allele is more likely to get Covid-19 disease than those who possess the GG allele.
Key words: Coronavirus , SNP , ACE2
99. Studying the effect of electrolyzed water as a denture cleanser on physical properties of both PMMA and polyamide denture base-materials
Ahmed Adnan Abed*, and Aseel Mohammed Al-Khafaji
Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Denture cleansing is an essential step that can stop cross‑contamination and adds to the health of the patient, denture durability, and the general quality of life. A disinfection technique must be effective devoid of damaging effect on the materials properties used for the construction of denture base.The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of electrolyzed water denture cleanser on heat cure acrylic and polyamide after immersion in electrolyzed water. The evaluation is based on their efficacy on surface hardness, wettabilityand color stability comparing with one that submerged in distilled water as a control group.The method consists of a hundred and eighty samples of the heat cured acrylic, and polyamide material. The samples were immersed in electrolyzed water at a concentration of (100-200ppm) and in distilled water for 5 minutes, 30 times, and daily for 12 days to simulate a one-year interval.The outcome of the conducted tests showed that the surface hardness and color stability were maintained, where there was no significant difference between control and experimental groups. While the result of wettability showed statistically significant differ-ence between control and experimental groups. Thus, electrolyzed water has no effect on the surface hardness and color stability of both heat cure acrylic and polyamide denture base materials, but the wettability of these materials was significantly increased.
Keywords: Electrolyzed water; Heat cure acrylic; Polyamide material
Emad H. Abdullah 1*, Sundus Anwer M. AL-Hamdani 2, Faaiz Alhamdani 3, and Khawlah Tarteeb Hussein 4.
"1Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences,Baghdad, Iraq, [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1795-9475
2 Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences,Baghdad, Iraq, [email protected].
3Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iraq, Baghdad. [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4899-824X
4Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iraq, Baghdad
Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Dry socket (alveolar osteitis) is the most commonly encountered complication after tooth extraction in humans and this has been widely reported. Dry socket lesion although it is a self-limiting condition but the pain and discomfort that the patient complains of leads to lost days at work and many visits to the hospital. As the exact and confirmed etiopathogenesis for dry socket has not been well understood. The aim of this study were to find out the frequency, clinical picture, and risk factors for dry socket. A total of 995 patients were in-cluded in this study. There were 593 (59.6%) male patients and 402 (40.4%) female patients. The age of pa-tients ranged from 14 -70 years with a mean of 33.9 ± 11.32 years. from January 2013 to March 2015. All consecutive patients who were referredOral surgery Department in Al-Karama specialized dentistry centre in Baghdad for consultation. A total of 995 patients were included in this study. Out of 995, 68 patients devel-oped dry sockets (6.83%). Those patients who developed sockets et were between (18-67) years(mean 33.9,sd+11.32) most of them in the third decade of life, there were 593 (59.6%) male patients and 402 (40.4%) female patients with a higher percentage of dry sockets than the female group, 33(48.5%) of 68 cases who de-veloped dry sockets had surgical extraction. There were significant differences in the development of sockets pocket between the removal of the two teeth done surgically (51.5%) or non-surgically (48.5%), p= 0.033. The frequency of AO reported in this study is higher than the overall incidence of studies registered. There were significant differences concerning the age of the patient and dry socket, there is no relationship between smok-ing and the occurrence of dry socket found in the present study. It has been shown that the frequency of AO increases in patients with poor oral hygiene in the literature. Clinically the picture of the dry socket that includes pain, empty socket and exposed bone were found in all patients.
Keywords:Dry socket,Frequency, risk factor, oral hygiene surgical extraction