Latin American Journal of Biotechnology and Life Sciences
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Evaluation of new genetic structures under the dimensions from Cicer arietinum
Israa Moneeb Mohammed AliAgwan1*,   Mohammed Subhi Altaweel2, Hajer Saeed Ali Askander3,
                                        1 Department of Biology/ College of Science/ University of MosulIraq.Iraq.
                                                                                            2 Field Crops of Department, College of Agriculture Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq.
                                                                                                                                    3 Field Crops of Department, College of Agricultural Engineering sciences, the University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
*Correspondence author: [email protected]
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Twenty-one chickpea genotypes were tested to evaluate genetic variation in some agronomic traits, heritability and genetic advance. The experiment was conducted in field crops during the 2018 -2019 growing season. A Randomized Complete Block Design (CRD) with three replications was used; data were collected for days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, the height of the first pod from the ground, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, biological yield per plant, seed yield per plant, harvest index and 100-seed weight. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant mean square difference for all traits except the number of pods per plant, harvest index and 100-seed weight. Genotypes (7,18) were more distinctive than the other genotypes in most characteristics. The high value of the genotypic coefficient of variation was found for biological yield per plant (29. 772), seed yield per plant (24.757) and the number of primary branches (24.849). High heritability was recorded for the first pod height from the ground (67.8) and plant height (60.8). High expected genetic advance as a percentage of the mean was estimated for biological yield per plant (41.144), seed yield per plant (39.61), and the number of primary branches per plant (38.382).
Keywords genetic variability, Heritability, genetic advance, Chickpea..

Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) is considered the third among pulses, and the world pulses production is 12% 1. Chickpea ranks as an essential source of protein for the rural poor who cannot buy animal products. In Iraq, chickpeas' productivity is unstable due to cultivars with a narrow genetic base, which exposes them to biotic stresses in fencing production. Genetic diversity is needed in crop breeding programs to improve the productivity of cultivars by using the introduced germplasm one method. Information on genetic parameters in new germplasm is needed to improve genetic diversity in breeding and breeding programs. 2 High variations in days to maturity, the number of plant pods and seed yield in chickpea 3, plant height and the number of plant branches 4, are decisive factors in deciding which traits still show high variability value by phenotypic and genotypic value and coefficient of variation, giving the idea about the amount of variability in the population, (genetic status). In addition to genetic variation, heritability is an important parameter in the selection of specific traits, high heritability value in a broad sense was found in 100-seed weight, and the number of seed plant-₁ in chickpea by 4, seed yield and number of branches plant F1 5. Estimated high broad-sense heritability for 6, biological yield and its related traits in soybean, days to 50% flowering in chickpea by 1,7 found high broad-sense heritability for the number of branches and biological yield along with genetic advance in chickpea with the same traits 8. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in chickpeas were studied, and a low genetic coefficient of variation for days to 50% flowering and plant height indicated common environmental effects on these traits. Heritability effects are essential in expressing the reliability of phenotypic characters with high heritability, which is influential in selecting such characters and desiring future chickpea breeding programs. The present study aims to determine the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in 21 genotypes of chickpeas.

The experiment was carried out in the field crops Department. College of Agricultural Engineering Science, Duhok University, Iraq. In the growing season, March 2018 using, twenty genotypic and one check (local cultivars) were used in this study (Table 1). The source of genotypic seed was obtained from International Center for dry Agriculture ICARDA; all the genotypes seeds were sown in randomized complete block design R C B D with three replication in three-row 4 m long 50cm between and 20cm within the row all Agricultural practices were performed recommended for chickpea productions Five plants selected round only for each phenotype to recording data of the following traits:-number of days to 50%vflowering, number of secondary branches per plant height of fresh, number of pods per plant, number of seed per pods, Biological yield gm, grain yield per plant gm, selection index and 100 seed weight gm.
Data were subjected to analysis of variance to define the phenotypic and genotypic, and environmental variance and coefficient of variation according to the formula suggested by 9,

Environmental variance Ơ²e=MSE
K=selection intensity under 10%=1.76
Ơp=standard variance of the phenotype
h=heritability in a broad sense
GA=genetic advance.
GAM=genetic advanced percent of the mean
x̅=mean of population.
Genetic advance is considered high when it is more than 30% and 10-30%medium less than 10% low 12.
The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of 21 new inputs derived from the International Center for Dry Agriculture ICARD shown in Table 1.


Table 1. Numbers, Names and Pedigrees genotypes of chickpea.

The land was plowed with the plowing disc plow, and the soil was mowed with disc harrows the twenty. On 23-12-2014, under the demographic conditions in the fields of one of the farmers of the region of the province of Nineveh in the experiment design of the random segments full RCBD three replicates where the experimental unit consists of two lines length of 4 m for the line and 50 cm between the line and another and (20 cm) between Joura and other, The fertilizer was added Luria (N% 46) at an average rate of (120 kg / e) in the first two steps after germination and the second at the beginning of the stage of holding flowers, and the amount of precipitation during the growing season. At the end of the growing season, the studies were carried out on five plants randomly selected from the experimental unit. The yield was estimated by harvesting the experimental unit plants and studying the number of days for 50% flowering, plant height (cm), total plant count, Qurna length (Kg/ha), dry seed yield (kg/ha), harvest index (%), the weight of 100 seeds (g). The data were analyzed statistically according to the design of the entire random sectors (RCBD. Using the SAS (2004) program, genetic, phenotypic, and environmental variations were estimated according to the way they were explained 11.
The standard error of phenotypic variation was estimated (12) according to the equation:
  Note that k = degrees of freedom for each source (genetic structures or experimental error), r = number of replicates, where N = total degrees of freedom of genetic structure and experimental error and calculation of the values of phenotypic differences (PCV) and genotype (9), depending on the ranges used by(12), which is less than 10%, low, 10-30% medium, and more than 30% high.
And to find inheritance values broadly in how they have been explained 9. The scales described above were based on (1999). The inheritance values in the broad sense are less than 40%, 40-60% medium, and 60% or higher.

The predicted genetic improvement was estimated when 5% of the plants were selected 11.12 suggested the expected genetic improvement as a percentage of the mean: less than 10%, 10-30% medium, and more than 30% high.
 The physical and genetic correlations between the pairs of studied traits were found as explained by using the Excel program and tested its significance in how it was described 10.

Analysis of variance
Analysis of variance (Table 2) for all genotypes studied traits showed highly significant differences in the mean square for all studied traits except the number of pods per plant, harvest index and 100seed weight; this indicates the high genetic variability in genotypes can be used in chickpea breeding program. Similar results were obtained by 13–15.
Mean performance :

Table 2. Mean square of variance analysis for studied traits in chickpeas *And **indicating significance at levels 0.05 and 0.01, respectively.

Table 3. Mean performance of twenty–one genotypes of chickpea for studied traits.
Showed the mean performance of Twentyone's  –genotypes for studied traits, the result discovered many genotypes earlier than the check variety for days 50% flowering genotypes (6 and 8) were the latest with (95,90)days respectively while the genotypes18were the earliest with (64) days. For plant height which is one of the desirable traits in chickpeas which decreases lodging effect and improves ultimate seed yield, the genotype with modest plant height and high yield traits could be essential to use for genetic improvement of chickpea varieties; the result showed the tallest plant among the twenty–one genotype, found in genotypes (17,18) with value (32,60) and (30.70) cm. respectively, while the shortest plants with (15.30) cm for genotypes (21). Regarding the number of primary branches per plant, genotype (8) had the highest number, with (3.50) branches and the lowest number for genotype (20), with (1.30) branches; for the number of secondary branches, per plant, genotype (7,11) recorded the highest number with (65.8 and 62.73) respectively with the lowest number of genotype (8) with (21.20). The same table showed that genotype (8), with (32.90) cm was the highest of the first pod from the ground, while genotype (21) was the shortest for the same trait, for the number of pods per plant genotypes (7 and 16) with (45.4) had the highest number and lowest with (10.66) for genotypes (21). Regarding the number of seed per pod, genotypes (7 and 14) gives a maximum number of (1.75 and 1.700) respectively, and the minimum number of seed per pod is recorded by genotypes (8,18) with (1.100). For biological yield per plant, genotypes (20 and 2) with values (166.240 and 162.600g) give the highest value (166.240 and 162.600g) provide the highest value of biological yield per plant and lowest for genotype (1x) with (xx.25g) the same table showed that genotype (x‾) had the highest value with (70.355)for grain yield per plant and lowest for genotype (2) genotype (2) with (19.330g), for harvest index genotypes (12) record the high value (77.377) and low value for genotype (21) with (26.316). Genotype (18) records the high value of 100 seed weight with (46.92)g and the lowest for genotype (5) with (11.955); we conclude from the previous results that genotype (7) was more distinctive than other genotypes in number of secondary branches per plant, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and grain yield per plant, followed by genotype (18) was earliest with day 50% flowering and 100 seed weight (g). In contrast, genotype (8)was superior in the number of primary branches per plant and the highest first pod from the ground; the results were consistent with other researchers 1,15–17.

Table 4. Genetic parameters of studied traits in chickpeas.

Illustrated some of the genetic parameters for studied traits, it is clear that the genetic variation was highly significant for all traits except the number of primary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod; the high phenotypic  variance as compared to genotypic variance explains the role of environment in the expression of the trait such value provides information of the extent of variability, it is clear the highest value of the phenotypic coefficient of variation were record in the number of pod per plant with (x‾2.332)100 seed weight (45.464)g .and biological yield per plant (44.379)g., while the higher genetic coefficient, of variation, were found in natural product per plant (29.772)g.,seed yield per plant (24.757) g and the number of primary branches per plant (24.849). Similar results were observed by (18) 1,19,20. From the same table, the heritability estimate value was high for the height of the first pod from the ground (67.8)and plant height (60.8). At the same time, it was medium for the number of secondary branches per plant (59.6), Number of seeds per pod (49.5), biological yield per plant (45)and grain yield per plant (59) and low for other traits. The results were in agreement with other researchers(13,21).genetic advance as present of mean at 10% selection intensity was high for biological yield (41.144),seed yield per plant (39.161)and number primary branches per plant (38.382). At the same time, it was low for the number of days 50%flowering (9.948)and medium for other traits, from the present study showed that the high-value heritability followed by the medium of expected genetic advance as percent value for plant height and high the first pod from the ground these two traits could be improved easily more than the other traits in the present study, a similar result was found by 5,13,15,22,23.

Many genotypic structures of chickpeas are estimated in this study many characters. The mean square has a highly significant difference for all traits except the number of pods per plant, harvest index and 100 seed weight. The genotypic coefficient variation has a high value in biological yield, seed yield per plant and number of primary branches. Heritability has a high value in the first pod and plant high. The expected genetic advance has a high value as percent in many characteristics such as biological and seed yield number of primary branches in the plant.   
Funding: self-funding
Acknowledgments: In this section, we acknowledge any person who supports us in completing this project.
Conflicts of Interest: there is no conflict

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Received: March 27, 2022 / Accepted: October 22, 2022 / Published:15 November 2022

Citation: AliAgwan I M M,   Altaweel M S, Ali Askander H S. Evaluation of new genetic structures under the dimensions from Cicer arietinum. Revis Bionatura 2022;7(4) 55.
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