Effect of spraying with Jasmonic acid and chemical fertilizer Ennne on the content of Grapefruit saplings
Mohammed Salim Dawood 1, Khalid Abdullah Saher Al Hamdani2*
1 University of Samarra, College of Education, Department of Biology [email protected].
2 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Samarra.
* Correspondence: [email protected].
Available from. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2023.08.03.132
The experiment was carried out in the Modify wooden canopy to the College of Agriculture / University of Samarra lath house for the growing season from 1/7/2021 to 1/6/2022. The saplings were brought from Salah El-Din Governorate, Balad District, and 54 seedlings of one-and-a-half-year-old grapefruit saplings were chosen, budded onto the sour orange rootstock to study the effect of spraying with Jasmonic acid (JA) and the addition of nutrient solution (Ennne) in the chemical content of grapefruit saplings, as the saplings were sprayed with three concentrations of Jasmonic acid (0, 5 and 10 mg.L-1). Add three levels of Ennne High Nitrogen Nutrient Solution (0, 2.5 and 5 mL-1). The spraying process was carried out on three dates: the first date is 1/7/2021, the second date is 21 days after the first date, and so on for the third date. This study used a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two Jasmonates (JA) factors. The nutrient solution was Ennne with three replications, two seedlings for each experimental unit. The results were analyzed using the analysis of variance table, and the factors and their interactions were tested using the program. The ready-made statistician (SAS) calculated the least significant difference (LSD) at the probability level 0.05. The results of the study are summarized as follows: Spraying with Jasmonic acid, especially G2 concentration of 10 mg.L-1, led to an increase In the leaves content of nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbohydrates, which amounted to 2.30%, 0.49%, 3.47%,1.56% respectively, The concentration G1 of 5 mg.L-1 gave a significant increase in the potassium content of leaves, which amounted to 1.67%, while the comparison treatment showed the lowest average for the traits mentioned above. Also, spraying with the nutrient solution Ennne, especially at the level of 5 ml.L-1, led to a significant increase in the leaves content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and carbohydrates, which amounted to 2.32%, 0.50%, 1.67%, 3.48%, respectively. At the same time, the comparison treatment gave the lowest average for the traits above. As for the ratio of carbohydrates to nitrogen, the comparison treatment showed the highest rate, reaching 1.56, While treatment E1 gave the highest proportion of carbohydrates to nitrogen at 1.55%. The interaction between (the two study factors) showed significant differences in most of the traits. The treatment of G2E2 outperformed and gave the highest rate except for the nitrogen content of the leaves, as treatment G2E1 exceeded, while treatment G0E0 shared the lowest rate for the traits above.
Keywords: spray, jasmonic acid, Ennne nutrient solution, for grapefruit seedlings.s
Citrus is an evergreen fruit tree belonging to the family Rutaceae, which includes several genera, the most important of which are the genus Citrus, the genus Poncirus and the genus Fortunella, and the species belonging to the genus Citrus are widely spread throughout the whole world because of their adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions. Citrus cultivation is spread in subtropical (dry) and semi-tropical regions, and the genus Citrus includes four groups: the orange group and the mandarin (Allanki), the Indian lemon group, and the acid group, and each group has several species that include wide varieties and strains1-2.
Al-Samarrai 3 confirmed through their study on the effect of the foliar nutrient Disper Bloom GS on seedlings of grapes cultivar Halawani and Aswad Balad at concentrations (0, 2 and 4 g L-1) that there was a significant increase in the content of nitrogen and phosphorous compared to the control treatment. In addition, Al-Fatlawi4 showed in a study that she conducted to investigate the effect of treating grafts with different concentrations of IAA and spraying with GROW MORE foliar fertilizer on the vegetative growth characteristics of apricot seedlings, Prunus armeniaca cultivar Zagina, it concluded that spraying with GROW MORE foliar fertilizer every 15 days at a concentration of 2 g. L-1 It caused an increase in the leaves' content of nutrients, as the concentration of potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen and phosphorous increased.
In an experiment carried out by Sheteawi 5 on soybeans to see the effect of two levels of jasmonic acid, which is (1,0) micromolar, on the growth and yield of soybeans, there was a significant difference in the concentration of elements between the levels of jasmonic acid if the concentration of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorous elements increased when spraying With jasmonic acid at a concentration of 1 micromolar in saline levels (0, 50, 100) when comparing each salt level with the same in the absence of jasmonic acid spray.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out in the College of Agriculture / University of Samarra lath house for the growing season 2021 to 2022. The saplings were brought from Salah Al-Din Governorate, Balad District, and 54 seedlings were selected from the grapefruit saplings, about one and a half years old, budded onto the rootstock of the sour orange. We planted inside plastic containers with a container capacity of 5 kg. The homogeneous seedlings were selected as much as possible; the seedlings were transferred to larger plastic containers with a container capacity of 10 kg in a mixture of soil. Samples were taken from the ground and used for chemical and physical analyses (Table 1).
Transactions and experiment design: The study included the following transactions
First: The first factor: spraying with Jasmonic acid in three concentrations:
1 - Spraying with water only (comparison treatment). Its symbol is G0.
2 - Spraying with jasmonic acid at a concentration of 0.5 mg. L-1 . It is denoted by the symbol G1. It is
3- Spraying with jasmonic acid at 10 mg.L-1. The symbol G2 denotes it.
Second: The second factor is spraying with a nutrient solution in three concentrations:
The comparison treatment is denoted by the symbol E0.
Spraying with Ennne neutral fertilizer at a level of 2.5 m. L-1 . It is denoted by the symbol E1.
Third: Spraying with Ennne neutral fertilizer at 5 m.L-1 . The symbol E2 denotes it.
The spraying process was carried out on three dates: the first date, 1/7 and the second date, 21 days after the first date, and so on for the third date. The following design is a randomized complete block design (RCBD) as a factorial experiment with two factors, Jasmonic acid and nutrient solution, with three concentrations for each aspect. With two saplings for each experimental unit and three replications, the total number of saplings is 54 6-7.
Determination of the nitrogen content of leaves (%)
Samples were collected from each experimental unit, dried and crushed, then 0.2 g of the crushed sample was taken and digested by concentrated sulfuric and perchloric acid. Then, the Microkjeldahl apparatus was used according to the method mentioned in 8.
Determination of phosphorous content of leaves (%)
The percentage of phosphorous in the leaves was estimated by colorimetric method and reading the light absorption at a wavelength of 410 nm using a spectrophotometer type 100 1_v lab EMC according to the way mentioned in 9.
Determination of potassium content of leaves (%)
The potassium content in the leaves was estimated using a flame photometer type 378_Elicocl according to the method given in 10.
Estimated protein content in leaves (%)
The percentage of protein in plant leaves was calculated based on dry weight 11 and according to the following equation: Protein % = % Nitrogen x 6.25
Estimated percentage of carbohydrates (%)
The percentage of carbohydrates was measured using 12 methods in estimating the total carbohydrates in branches and agencies: 0.2 g of dry sample powder was taken and placed in a test tube, and an added Perchloric acid (N1) was added. The samples were placed in a water bath at 60 ° C for 60 minutes, with this process being repeated three times, each time being centrifuged for 15 minutes at a speed of 3000 cycles. Minute-1 The clear solution was collected in a volumetric flask and completed to 100 ml by adding distilled water, then 1 ml of the dilute solution was taken, and 1 ml of 5% phenol solution and 5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added to it. The absorption of the solutions was read by a spectrophotometer with a wavelength of 490 nm.
Estimation of the carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio (C: N ratio)
Calculated by dividing the percentage of carbohydrates by the rate of nitrogen for each refiner.
Leaves content of nitrogen
Table (2) results show significant differences resulting from spraying with Jasmonic acid, having significantly increased the leaves' nitrogen content. theG2 concentration gave the highest ratio of 2.30%, followed by the G1 transaction by a significant difference of 2.25%, while the G0 concentration gave the lowest percentage of nitrogen 2.09%.
From the results of the same Table (2), there are significant differences as a result of the Ennne nutrient solution; the E2 concentration gave the highest nitrogen ratio of 2.32%, followed by the E1 concentration significant difference of (2.22%), while the E0 concentration gave the lowest nitrogen content of the leaves at 2.11 %.
As for the interaction between the growth regulator of Gasmonic Acid and Ennne Nutrient Solution, the results of Table ( 2 ) showed a significant effect on the leaves content of nitrogen, with concentration of G1E2 and G2E1 achieving the highest ratio of 2.30%. The comparison treatment G0E0 gave the lowest nitrogen ratio of 1.89%.
Leaves content of phosphorus
Table( 3 ) results show significant differences resulting from spraying with Jasmonic acid, having significantly increased the Leaves content of phosphorus. The G2 concentration gave the highest ratio of 0.49%, followed by the G1 concentration by a significant difference of 0.46%, while the G0 concentration gave the lowest percentage of phosphorus, 0.42%.
As for the effect of spraying with Ennne nutrient solution, note the results of the same Table (3). The E2 concentration gave the highest phosphorus ratio of 0.50%, followed by the moral difference of the E1 concentration, giving it a ratio of 0.46%. In comparison, the E0 concentration gave the lowest phosphorus percentage of 0.42%.
As for the bilateral overlap between the growth regulator Jasmonic Acid and Ennne Nutrient Solution, the results of Table (3) showed that there were significant differences in the content of the papers of phosphorus, with the G2E2 concentration achieving the highest rate of 0.53%. The comparison concentration gave G0E0 the lowest proportion of phosphorus at 0.35%.
Leaves content of potassium
From the results of Table (4), significant differences result from spraying with Jasmonic acid. The G1 concentration gave the highest ratio of 1.67%, followed by the G2 concentration without a substantial difference of 1.66%, while the G0 concentration gave the lowest percentage of potassium at 1.52%.
The results of the statistical analysis in the same Table (4) indicate significant differences due to Ennne's nutrient solution concentration, giving E2 the highest potassium rate at 1.67%, followed by the moral difference of E1 concentration at 1.62%. The comparison concentration gave E0 the lowest ratio in the content of the phosphorus leaves at 1.62%.
On the bilateral overlap between the growth regulator Jasmonic Acid and Ennne Nutrient Solution, Table ( 4) results showed a moral effect on the leaves' potassium content, with the G2E2 concentration achieving the highest rate of 1.74%. The comparison concentration gave the lowest G0E0 phosphorus ratio of 1.38%.
Leaves content of carbohydrates
The results of Table (5) indicate significant differences due to spraying with Jasmonic acid in the Leaves content of carbohydrates. The G2 concentration gave the highest ratio of 3.47%, followed by the G1 concentration with a significant difference of 3.40%, while the G0 concentration gave the lowest proportion of carbohydrates at 3.24%.
Results from the same Table (5) show significant differences due to Anne's nutrient solution spraying, giving E2 the highest carbohydrate ratio at 3.48%, followed by a substantial difference in E1 by giving it a ratio of 3.41%. In contrast, the comparative treatment showed the lowest E0 in the Leaves' content of carbohydrates
Table 1. Some chemical and physical properties of the soil used in the study.
As for the bilateral overlap between the growth regulator Jasmonic acid and Ennne nutrient solution, Table (5) showed a significant effect in the Leaves content of carbohydrates, giving the G2E2 concentration the highest rate of 3.57%. In comparison, in treatment G0E0, the lowest proportion of carbohydrates was 2.95%.
Leaves content of carbohydrate/nitrogen:
The results of Table (6) show significant differences from spraying with jasmonic acid and have substantially increased the Leaves' content of carbohydrates/nitrogen. The G0 concentration gave the highest percentage of 1.56%, followed by a moral difference of G2 concentration, giving it 1.51%, while the G1 concentration gave the lowest rate of carbohydrates/nitrogen at 1.48%.
The same Table (6) results indicate significant differences due to Ennne's nutrient solution spraying, giving E1 the highest carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio of 1.55%, followed by no considerable E0 concentration difference of 1.53%. In contrast, E2 showed the lowest Leaves content of carbohydrate/nitrogen.
As for the overlap between the jasmonic acid growth regulator and Ennne nutrient solution, the results of Table (6) showed a moral effect in carbohydrate/nitrogen, with the G0E1 concentration achieving the highest rate of 1.61%, while the G1E2 concentration gave the lowest proportion of carbohydrate/nitrogen 1.40%.
* Soil was analyzed in the Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Tikrit University.
Table 2. The effect of spraying with Jasmonic acid and Ennne nutrient solution and their interaction in the Leaves content of nitrogen (%).
Table 3. Spraying Effect with Jasmonic Acid and Ennne Nutrient Solution and their interaction in phosphorus Leaves content (%).
Table 4. Spraying effect with Jasmonic acid and Ennne nutrient solution and interference between them in the leaves' potassium content (%).
Table 5. Spraying effect with jasmonic acid and Ennne nutrient solution and interaction between them in the Leaves content of carbohydrates (%).
Table 6. Spraying effect with jasmonic Acid and Ennne Nutrient Solution and interference between them in the Leaves content of carbohydrates/nitrogen (%).
It is clear from the results in Tables (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) that there is a response of grapefruit saplings to the study factors. The reason for the increase in the percentage of carbohydrates, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and carbohydrates in the leaves when spraying with jasmonic acid (JA) and the nutrient solution Ennne can be attributed to the role of both in stimulating cell division and its expansion, which increases the rate of vegetative growth. The increase in the percentage of carbohydrates in the leaves due to spraying with jasmonic may be due to its role in stimulating the growth of leaves due to the rise in cell division and expansion. It also enables the formation of some photosynthesis enzymes to accumulate starch in the leaves 13. The reason for the increase in the leaves ' content of nitrogen, carbohydrates, phosphorous and potassium when adding the nutrient solution Ennne may be due to the content of this nutrient of macro and micronutrients, vitamins and amino acids, which have a broad effect in activating vital activities inside the plant 14 and increasing the concentration of nitrogen, as nitrogen enters into the construction of the chlorophyll pigment due to its participation in the formation of the porphyrins units involved in the composition of this pigment, in addition to the fact that nitrogen enters the building of amino acids and protein, which increases the construction of chloroplasts 15. Either element phosphorous as one of the components of the nutrient solution Ennne can help element phosphorous to metabolize nitrate because its reduction requires adequate preparation of P, and its presence does not lead to its accumulation 16. P is an essential component of photosynthesis, as it is critical for preserving phosphorylation reactions during CO2 assimilation 17. Phosphorous may have a crucial role in plant growth, as it contributes to the formation of energy-rich compounds that the plant needs in the construction of other compounds such as carbohydrates, phospholipids and enzymatic compounds that contribute to activating the vital activities of the plant, which leads to an increase in vegetative growth and nutritional content 18. Whereas potassium is essential for the synthesis of chlorophyll, although it is not included in its synthesis 19, the primary effect of K in photosynthesis is to maintain the concentration of K in the stroma of the chloroplast to allow CO2 to fix 20. The results of spraying in the previous tables agree with 21 in increasing the phosphorous and potassium content in leaves when spreading at a concentration of 0.02 mg L-1 for orange trees. NPK significantly expanded the range of elements N, P and K in olive tree leaves.
While the comparison treatment gave the lowest average for the traits above, as for the ratio of carbohydrates to nitrogen, the comparison treatment showed the highest rate, reaching 1.56, While treatment E1 gave the highest percentage of carbohydrates to nitrogen at 1.55%. The interaction between (the two study factors) showed significant differences in most of the traits. The treatment of G2E2 outperformed and gave the highest rate except for the nitrogen content of the leaves, as treatment G2E1 exceeded, while treatment G0E0 shared the lowest rate for the traits mentioned above.
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Received: 25 June 2023/ Accepted: 26 August 2023 / Published:15 September 2023
Citation: Dawood M S, Al Hamdani K A S . Contamination of poultry feed with Candida species in Duhok city using CHROMAgar. Revis Bionatura 2023;8 (3) 132 http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2023.08.03.132