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2023.08.02.23
Files > Volume 8 > Vol 8 No 2 2023

Molecular identification and Phylogenetic-Tree Analysis of Hard Ticks from wild and domestic cat Felidae in Iraq
Afkar Muslim Hadi¹, Hind Dyia Hadi*² , Suhad Yasin Jassim3
¹ Iraq Natural History Research Center and Museum, University of Baghdad; email:[email protected]
² Iraq Natural History Research Center and Museum, University of Baghdad; email: [email protected]
3 Iraq Natural History Research Center and Museum, University of Baghdad; email: [email protected]
*Correspondence: email: [email protected]
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2023.08.02.23

 
ABSTRACT

 
A total of 13 samples of domestic cat Felis cattus (Linnaeus, 1758 ) and  9 samples of wild cat Felis chaus furax (de Winton, 1898)  of the Felidae Family were trapped and examined to detect the hard ticks. The areas of the collection were: Baghdad, Al-Rashidiya, Tharthar, Nahrawan, AL-Mahmoudiya (middle of Iraq) and AL-Haretha (south of Iraq), Mosul (north of Iraq). The results of the current study revealed that four species belong to two genera of hard ticks: Haemaphysalis sp. (Koch, 1844), Rhipicephalus turanicus (Morel, 1969), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Neumann, 1904) and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Santos, 1955). The rates and the density of infestation were discussed. The current study aimed to clarify the infestation difference between domestic and wild cats with hard ticks (3, 14.88) because domestic cats enjoy human attention, as they live close to him. The current study identified the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for the first time in Iraq from domestic cat Felis cattus.
 
Keywords: Felidae, Haemaphysalis, Ixodidae, Rhipicephalus, wild cat.  
 
 

 
INTRODUCTION                               
 
 
  
 
Hard ticks were belonging to the Family Ixodidae consisting of 700 species. They have scutum or "hard shield" in the dorsal side of the body; therefore, they are called hard ticks 1 Tick usually carry many pathogenic microorganisms and parasites that cause diseases for both humans and animals 2 These may be bacteria, helminths, protozoa and viruses 3,4 In Iraq, 5 revealed to the endemic area of Theileriosis and Babesiosis which transmitted by ticks. The current study aims to investigate a phenotypic description of the species of ticks that infest the domestic and wild cat (Family: Felidae). Second: look at tick biodiversity and complete an ecological map for the prevalence of tick species in domestic and wild animals.
 
 
   
 
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS

 
Collection of samples: A total of 13 samples of domestic cat Felis cattus (Linnaeus, 1758 ) and  9 samples of wild cat Felis chaus furax (de Winton, 1898)  of the Felidae Family were trapped and examined to detect the hard ticks. The areas of the collection were: Baghdad, Al-Rashidiya, Tharthar, Nahrawan, AL-Mahmoudiya (middle of Iraq) and AL-Haretha (south of Iraq), Mosul (north of Iraq). The infestation of hard ticks was in the animals' dorsal, femoral and udder. All the collected ticks samples were kept in sterile tubes containing 70% alcohol, and the place of collection and the females and males were recorded on it. Ticks sampled were transported to the Iraq Natural History Research Center and Museum (INHM) for examining, diagnosing and photographed with a digital camera.
 
 
 
 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 
 
  
 
33 (17 female &16 male) hard ticks samples were isolated from 13 domestic cats, and 134 (44 female & 90 male) hard ticks samples were isolated from 9 wild cats. The infestation rates were 84.61% and 100% in domestic and feral cats, respectively. The infestation density was 3, 14.88 in domestic and wild cats, respectively. (Table 1).
 
The results of the current study revealed that four species belong to two genera of hard ticks: Haemaphysalis sp. (Koch, 1844), Rhipicephalus turanicus (Morel, 1969), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Neumann, 1904) and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Santos, 1955), as in table 2 and figures (1-4).
 
 


  
 
Table 1. Total rates and the density of infestation hard ticks for Felidae in Iraq.
 
         


 
Table 2. Distribution of complex ticks species in domestic and wild cats in Iraq.
 
 
         

       
 
 
         
                                                                                         
        
      
       
 
Figure 1. Dorsal A and ventral side B of  Rhipicephalus turanicus in Felidae in Iraq. 1. Coxae 1 anterior spurs are not visible dorsally. 2. Lateral groove type is a distinct groove. 3. Posterior grooves are distinct grooves. 4. Caudal appendage is broad in fed males. 5. Adanal plate shape is narrow and trapezoid.
 
 


  
         
      
        
      
       
Figure 2. Dorsal A and ventral side B of  Rhipicephalus sanguineus in wild cats in Iraq. 1. Coxae  1 anterior spurs are not visible dorsally. 2. Lateral groove type is a distinct groove. 3. Posterior grooves are distinct grooves (deep and wide with wrinkled texture). 4. Conscutum color is dark. 5.Caudal appendage is broad in fed males. 6.Adanal plates shape are abroad and curved appearance.
 
 
    
    

  
         
      
        
      
       
Figure  3. Dorsal A and ventral side B of  Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in domestic cats in Iraq. 1. Coxae 1 anterior spurs are visible dorsally. 2. Lateral groove type is a distinct groove. 3. Posterior grooves are distinct grooves (shallow with wrinkled texture). 4. Caudal appendage is narrow in fed males. 5. Adanal plates shape is narrow and trapezoid
 
 
    

  
         
      
        
      
       
Figure 4. Dorsal A and ventral side B of   Haemaphysalis sp. in wild cats in Iraq.     1. Palp articles 2 lateral extension is large (the palps form a distinctly conical shape). 2. Palp articles 2 dorsal spur is present. 3. Festoons enclosed by each lateral groove. 4. Festoons numbers = eleven.
 
 
    
  
 
The biodiversity of ticks in domestic and wild animals is an important topic to study that highlights to the reservoir hosts which play a role in distribution of ticks and disease. The current study revealed a clear difference in the infestation density between domestic and wild cats with hard ticks (3, 14.88); domestic cats enjoy human attention, as they live close to him. Rhipicephalus turanicus appeared in both domestic and wild cats; this result agrees with 6,7. They revealed domestic cats infested with  Rhipicephalus turanicus. Previously,8 Recorded Rhipicephalus turanicus in wild cats. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was recorded in the Canidae previously in Iraq by 8,6, while 9 recorded it in dogs and humans in Daiwania city; so this recording in wild cat Felis chaus furax in the current study consider a new host for R. sanguineus. The present study identified the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for the first time in Iraq from domestic cat Felis cattus; this result agrees with 10 who revealed to R. appendiculatus in feline (Sable). The current results recorded the Haemaphysalis sp. in wild cat Felis chaus furax. While 8,6  isolated Haemaphysalis Adler from the Wild jungle cat.
 
 
 
 
Review for Molecular Identification and Phylogenetic-Tree Analysis of Hard Ticks
 
 
  
 
The sequencing of the genus Rhipicephalus was reported as follows: Rhipicephalus turanicus, Seq1 (MN999872), Seq2 (MN999873), Seq3 (MN999874) and Seq4 (MN999875) by 11 In Iraq. R. appendiculatus (MK551199) was reported by 12 In South Africa. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (MG386819) was reported by 13 in Portugal. The sequencing of the genus Haemaphysalis sp. is not represented in Iraq, while, in China Haemaphysalis parva (FN296280), Haemaphysalis punctata (FN296264) by 14 And Haemaphysalis flava (JQ737122), Haemaphysalis doenitzi (JQ346685) by 15. Morethan, Haemaphysalis longicornis (MF490294) and (MF490308) by 16 In South Africa, 17 revealed to the Haemaphysalis leachi (MN661151). Haemaphysalis adleri was not reported in NCBI till now.
 
 
 
 
 
CONCLUSION
 
 
 
  
 
The biodiversity of ticks in domestic and wild cats alike is an important topic to study that highlights the reservoir hosts who play a role in the distribution of ticks and, therefore, diseases. The current study revealed apparent differences in the infestation density between domestic and wild cats with hard ticks. Rhipicephalus turanicus appeared in both domestic and feral cats. The present study recorded Rhipicephalus sanguineus in wild cat Felis chaus furax; this recording was considered a new host for R. sanguineus. The current study identified the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for the first time in Iraq from domestic cat Felis cattus. The present results recorded the Haemaphysalis sp. in wild cat Felis chaus furax.
 
 

 
 
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Received: 2  January 2023/ Accepted: 19 April 2023 / Published:15 June 2023
 
Citation: Muslim Hadi A, Dyia Hadi H, Yasin Jassim S. Molecular identification and Phylogenetic-Tree Analysis of Hard Ticks from wild and domestic cat Felidae in Iraq. Revis Bionatura 2023;8 (2) 24. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2023.08.02.24
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